X-ray structure of mutant galectin-1/lactose complex

Experimental Data Snapshot

  • Resolution: 1.86 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.244 
  • R-Value Work: 0.215 
  • R-Value Observed: 0.215 

wwPDB Validation   3D Report Full Report

This is version 2.2 of the entry. See complete history


Functional and structural bases of a cysteine-less mutant as a long-lasting substitute for galectin-1

Nishi, N.Abe, A.Iwaki, J.Yoshida, H.Itoh, A.Shoji, H.Kamitori, S.Hirabayashi, J.Nakamura, T.

(2008) Glycobiology 18: 1065-1073

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/glycob/cwn089
  • Primary Citation of Related Structures:  

  • PubMed Abstract: 

    Galectin-1 (Gal-1), a member of the beta-galactoside-binding animal lectin family, has a wide range of biological activities, which makes it an attractive target for medical applications. Unlike other galectins, Gal-1 is susceptible to oxidation at cysteine residues, which is troublesome for in vitro/vivo studies. To overcome this problem, we prepared a cysteine-less mutant of Gal-1 (CSGal-1) by substituting all cysteine residues with serine residues. In the case of wild-type Gal-1, the formation of covalent dimers/oligomers was evident after 10 days of storage in the absence of a reducing agent with a concomitant decrease in hemagglutination activity, while CSGal-1 did not form multimers and retained full hemagglutination activity after 400 days of storage. Frontal affinity chromatography showed that the sugar-binding specificity and affinity of Gal-1 for model glycans were barely affected by the mutagenesis. Gal-1 is known to induce cell signaling leading to an increase in the intracytoplasmic calcium concentration and to cell death. CSGal-1 is also capable of inducing calcium flux and growth inhibition in Jurkat cells, which are comparable to or more potent than those induced by Gal-1. The X-ray structure of the CSGal-1/lactose complex has been determined. The structure of CSGal-1 is almost identical to that of wild-type human Gal-1, showing that the amino acid substitutions do not affect the overall structure or carbohydrate-binding site structure of the protein. These results indicate that CSGal-1 can serve as a stable substitute for Gal-1.

  • Organizational Affiliation

    Department of Endocrinology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, Kagawa, Japan. nnishi@med.kagawa-u.ac.jp

Find similar proteins by:  (by identity cutoff)  |  3D Structure
Entity ID: 1
MoleculeChains Sequence LengthOrganismDetailsImage
A, B
134Homo sapiensMutation(s): 6 
Gene Names: LGALS1
UniProt & NIH Common Fund Data Resources
Find proteins for P09382 (Homo sapiens)
Explore P09382 
Go to UniProtKB:  P09382
PHAROS:  P09382
GTEx:  ENSG00000100097 
Entity Groups  
Sequence Clusters30% Identity50% Identity70% Identity90% Identity95% Identity100% Identity
UniProt GroupP09382
Sequence Annotations
  • Reference Sequence


Entity ID: 2
MoleculeChains Length2D Diagram Glycosylation3D Interactions
Glycosylation Resources
GlyTouCan:  G84224TW
GlyCosmos:  G84224TW
GlyGen:  G84224TW
Biologically Interesting Molecules (External Reference) 1 Unique
Experimental Data & Validation

Experimental Data

  • Resolution: 1.86 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.244 
  • R-Value Work: 0.215 
  • R-Value Observed: 0.215 
  • Space Group: P 21 21 21
Unit Cell:
Length ( Å )Angle ( ˚ )
a = 36.925α = 90
b = 87.431β = 90
c = 95.698γ = 90
Software Package:
Software NamePurpose
ADSCdata collection
HKL-2000data reduction
HKL-2000data scaling

Structure Validation

View Full Validation Report

Entry History 

Deposition Data

Revision History  (Full details and data files)

  • Version 1.0: 2008-09-30
    Type: Initial release
  • Version 1.1: 2011-07-13
    Changes: Version format compliance
  • Version 2.0: 2020-07-29
    Type: Remediation
    Reason: Carbohydrate remediation
    Changes: Atomic model, Data collection, Derived calculations, Structure summary
  • Version 2.1: 2021-11-10
    Changes: Database references, Structure summary
  • Version 2.2: 2023-11-01
    Changes: Data collection, Refinement description