Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Structure of the APOBEC3B Catalytic Domain: Structural Basis for Substrate Binding and DNA Deaminase Activity.Byeon, I.J., Byeon, C.H., Wu, T., Mitra, M., Singer, D., Levin, J.G., Gronenborn, A.M.
(2016) Biochemistry 55: 2944-2959
- PubMed: 27163633
- DOI: 10.1021/acs.biochem.6b00382
- PubMed Abstract:
Human APOBEC3B (A3B) is a member of the APOBEC3 (A3) family of cytidine deaminases, which function as DNA mutators and restrict viral pathogens and endogenous retrotransposons. Recently, A3B was identified as a major source of genetic heterogeneity i ...
Human APOBEC3B (A3B) is a member of the APOBEC3 (A3) family of cytidine deaminases, which function as DNA mutators and restrict viral pathogens and endogenous retrotransposons. Recently, A3B was identified as a major source of genetic heterogeneity in several human cancers. Here, we determined the solution nuclear magnetic resonance structure of the catalytically active C-terminal domain (CTD) of A3B and performed detailed analyses of its deaminase activity. The core of the structure comprises a central five-stranded β-sheet with six surrounding helices, common to all A3 proteins. The structural fold is most similar to that of A3A and A3G-CTD, with the most prominent difference being found in loop 1. The catalytic activity of A3B-CTD is ∼15-fold lower than that of A3A, although both exhibit a similar pH dependence. Interestingly, A3B-CTD with an A3A loop 1 substitution had significantly increased deaminase activity, while a single-residue change (H29R) in A3A loop 1 reduced A3A activity to the level seen with A3B-CTD. This establishes that loop 1 plays an important role in A3-catalyzed deamination by precisely positioning the deamination-targeted C into the active site. Overall, our data provide important insights into the determinants of the activities of individual A3 proteins and facilitate understanding of their biological function.
Section on Viral Gene Regulation, Program in Genomics of Differentiation, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health , Bethesda, Maryland 20892, United States.