Structure of Bitistatin A

Experimental Data Snapshot

  • Method: SOLUTION NMR
  • Conformers Calculated: 100 
  • Conformers Submitted: 29 
  • Selection Criteria: structures with the lowest energy 

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NMR structure of bitistatin - a missing piece in the evolutionary pathway of snake venom disintegrins.

Carbajo, R.J.Sanz, L.Perez, A.Calvete, J.J.

(2015) FEBS J 282: 341-360

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/febs.13138
  • Primary Citation of Related Structures:  
    2MOP, 2MP5

  • PubMed Abstract: 

    Extant disintegrins, as found in the venoms of Viperidae and Crotalidae snakes (vipers and rattlesnakes, represent a family of polypeptides that block the function of β1 and β3 integrin receptors, both potently and with a high degree of selectivity. This toxin family owes its origin to the neofunctionalization of the extracellular region of an ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloprotease) molecule recruited into the snake venom gland proteome in the Jurassic. The evolutionary structural diversification of the disintegrin scaffold, from the ancestral long disintegrins to the more recently evolved medium-sized, dimeric and short disintegrins, involved the stepwise loss of pairs of class-specific disulfide linkages and the processing of the N-terminal region. NMR and crystal structures of medium-sized, dimeric and short disintegrins have been solved. However, the structure of a long disintegrin remained unknown. The present study reports the NMR solution structures of two disulfide bond conformers of the long disintegrin bitistatin from the African puff adder Bitis arietans. The findings provide insight into how a structural domain of the extracellular region of an ADAM molecule, recruited into and selectively expressed in the snake venom gland proteome as a PIII metalloprotease in the Jurassic, has subsequently been tranformed into a family of integrin receptor antagonists.

  • Organizational Affiliation

    Laboratory of Structural Biochemistry, Centro de Investigación Príncipe Felipe, Valencia, Spain.

Find similar proteins by:  (by identity cutoff)  |  3D Structure
Entity ID: 1
MoleculeChains Sequence LengthOrganismDetailsImage
Disintegrin bitistatinA [auth 1]83Bitis arietansMutation(s): 0 
Find proteins for P17497 (Bitis arietans)
Explore P17497 
Go to UniProtKB:  P17497
Entity Groups  
Sequence Clusters30% Identity50% Identity70% Identity90% Identity95% Identity100% Identity
UniProt GroupP17497
Sequence Annotations
  • Reference Sequence
Experimental Data & Validation

Experimental Data

  • Method: SOLUTION NMR
  • Conformers Calculated: 100 
  • Conformers Submitted: 29 
  • Selection Criteria: structures with the lowest energy 

Structure Validation

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Entry History 

Deposition Data

Revision History  (Full details and data files)

  • Version 1.0: 2014-11-12
    Type: Initial release
  • Version 1.1: 2015-02-25
    Changes: Database references