Domain C of human poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 is important for enzyme activity and contains a novel zinc-ribbon motif.Tao, Z., Gao, P., Hoffman, D.W., Liu, H.W.
(2008) Biochemistry 47: 5804-5813
- PubMed: 18452307
- DOI: 10.1021/bi800018a
- PubMed Abstract:
Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) is a multimodular nuclear protein that participates in many fundamental cellular activities. Stimulated by binding to nicked DNA, PARP-1 catalyzes poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of the acceptor proteins using NAD (+) as ...
Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) is a multimodular nuclear protein that participates in many fundamental cellular activities. Stimulated by binding to nicked DNA, PARP-1 catalyzes poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of the acceptor proteins using NAD (+) as a substrate. In this work, NMR methods were used to determine the solution structure of human PARP-1 protein. Domain C was found to contain a zinc-binding motif of three antiparallel beta-strands with four conserved cysteines positioned to coordinate the metal ligand, in addition to a helical region. The zinc-binding motif is structurally reminiscent of the "zinc-ribbon" fold, but with a novel spacing between the conserved cysteines (CX2CX12CX 9C). Domain C alone does not appear to bind to DNA. Interestingly, domain C is essential for PARP-1 activity, since a mixture containing nicked DNA and the PARP-1 ABDEF domains has only basal enzymatic activity, while the addition of domain C to the mixture initiated NAD (+) hydrolysis and the formation of poly(ADP-ribose), as detected by an NMR-based assay and autoradiography. The structural model for domain C in solution provides an important framework for further studies aimed at improving our understanding of how the various domains within the complex PARP-1 enzyme play their respective roles in regulating the enzyme activity when cells are under conditions of genotoxic stress.
Division of Medicinal Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Institute for Cellular and Molecular Biology, University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712, USA.