2HT9

The structure of dimeric human glutaredoxin 2


Experimental Data Snapshot

  • Method: X-RAY DIFFRACTION
  • Resolution: 1.9 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.178 
  • R-Value Work: 0.149 

wwPDB Validation 3D Report Full Report


This is version 1.3 of the entry. See complete history

Literature

Reversible sequestration of active site cysteines in a 2Fe-2S-bridged dimer provides a mechanism for glutaredoxin 2 regulation in human mitochondria

Johansson, C.Kavanagh, K.L.Gileadi, O.Oppermann, U.

(2007) J.Biol.Chem. 282: 3077-3082

  • DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M608179200

  • PubMed Abstract: 
  • Human mitochondrial glutaredoxin 2 (GLRX2), which controls intracellular redox balance and apoptosis, exists in a dynamic equilibrium of enzymatically active monomers and quiescent dimers. Crystal structures of both monomeric and dimeric forms of hum ...

    Human mitochondrial glutaredoxin 2 (GLRX2), which controls intracellular redox balance and apoptosis, exists in a dynamic equilibrium of enzymatically active monomers and quiescent dimers. Crystal structures of both monomeric and dimeric forms of human GLRX2 reveal a distinct glutathione binding mode and show a 2Fe-2S-bridged dimer. The iron-sulfur cluster is coordinated through the N-terminal active site cysteine, Cys-37, and reduced glutathione. The structures indicate that the enzyme can be inhibited by a high GSH/GSSG ratio either by forming a 2Fe-2S-bridged dimer that locks away the N-terminal active site cysteine or by binding non-covalently and blocking the active site as seen in the monomer. The properties that permit GLRX2, and not other glutaredoxins, to form an iron-sulfur-containing dimer are likely due to the proline-to-serine substitution in the active site motif, allowing the main chain more flexibility in this area and providing polar interaction with the stabilizing glutathione. This appears to be a novel use of an iron-sulfur cluster in which binding of the cluster inactivates the protein by sequestering active site residues and where loss of the cluster through changes in subcellular redox status creates a catalytically active protein. Under oxidizing conditions, the dimers would readily separate into iron-free active monomers, providing a structural explanation for glutaredoxin activation under oxidative stress.


    Organizational Affiliation

    Structural Genomics Consortium, Botnar Research Centre, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7LD, United Kingdom.




Macromolecules

Find similar proteins by: Sequence  |  Structure

Entity ID: 1
MoleculeChainsSequence LengthOrganismDetails
Glutaredoxin-2
A, B
146Homo sapiensMutation(s): 0 
Gene Names: GLRX2 (GRX2)
Find proteins for Q9NS18 (Homo sapiens)
Go to Gene View: GLRX2
Go to UniProtKB:  Q9NS18
Entity ID: 2
MoleculeChainsSequence LengthOrganismDetails
12-mer peptide
X
12N/AMutation(s): 0 
Protein Feature View is not available: No corresponding UniProt sequence found.
Small Molecules
Ligands 2 Unique
IDChainsName / Formula / InChI Key2D Diagram3D Interactions
GSH
Query on GSH

Download SDF File 
Download CCD File 
A, B
GLUTATHIONE
C10 H17 N3 O6 S
RWSXRVCMGQZWBV-WDSKDSINSA-N
 Ligand Interaction
FES
Query on FES

Download SDF File 
Download CCD File 
A
FE2/S2 (INORGANIC) CLUSTER
Fe2 S2
NIXDOXVAJZFRNF-UHFFFAOYSA-N
 Ligand Interaction
Experimental Data & Validation

Experimental Data

  • Method: X-RAY DIFFRACTION
  • Resolution: 1.9 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.178 
  • R-Value Work: 0.149 
  • Space Group: P 63
Unit Cell:
Length (Å)Angle (°)
a = 111.754α = 90.00
b = 111.754β = 90.00
c = 51.647γ = 120.00
Software Package:
Software NamePurpose
PDB_EXTRACTdata extraction
MOSFLMdata reduction
SCALAdata scaling
PHASERphasing
CCP4data scaling
REFMACrefinement

Structure Validation

View Full Validation Report or Ramachandran Plots



Entry History 

Deposition Data

Revision History 

  • Version 1.0: 2006-08-29
    Type: Initial release
  • Version 1.1: 2008-05-01
    Type: Version format compliance
  • Version 1.2: 2011-07-13
    Type: Version format compliance
  • Version 1.3: 2012-12-05
    Type: Database references