Multipolar Interactions in the D Pocket of Thrombin: Large Differences between Tricyclic Imide and Lactam Inhibitors.Schweizer, E., Hoffmann-Roeder, A., Olsen, J.A., Seiler, P., Obst-Sander, U., Wagner, B., Kansy, M., Banner, D.W., Diederich, F.
(2006) Org.Biomol.Chem. 4: 2364
- PubMed: 16763681
- DOI: 10.1039/b602585d
- Primary Citation of Related Structures:  2CF9
- PubMed Abstract:
Two series of tricyclic inhibitors of the serine protease thrombin, imides (+/-)-1-(+/-)-8 and lactams (+/-)-9-(+/-)-13, were analysed to evaluate contributions of orthogonal multipolar interactions with the backbone C=O moiety of Asn98 to the free e ...
Two series of tricyclic inhibitors of the serine protease thrombin, imides (+/-)-1-(+/-)-8 and lactams (+/-)-9-(+/-)-13, were analysed to evaluate contributions of orthogonal multipolar interactions with the backbone C=O moiety of Asn98 to the free enthalpy of protein-ligand complexation. The lactam derivatives are much more potent and more selective inhibitors (K(i) values between 0.065 and 0.005 microM, selectivity for thrombin over trypsin between 361- and 1609-fold) than the imide compounds (Ki values between 0.057 and 23.7 microM, selectivity for thrombin over trypsin between 3- and 67-fold). The increase in potency and selectivity is explained by the favorable occupancy of the P-pocket of thrombin by the additional isopropyl substituent in the lactam derivatives. The nature of the substituent on the benzyl ring filling the D pocket strongly influences binding potency in the imide series, with Ki values increasing in the sequence: F < OCH2O < Cl < H < OMe < OH < N(pyr)< Br. This sequence can be explained by both steric fit and the occurrence of orthogonal multipolar interactions with the backbone C[double bond, length as m-dash]O moiety of Asn98. In contrast, the substituent on the benzyl ring hardly affects the ligand potency in the lactam series. This discrepancy was clarified by the comparison of X-ray structures solved for co-crystals of thrombin with imide and lactam ligands. Whereas the benzyl substituents in the imide inhibitors are sufficiently close (< or =3.5 Angstroms) to the C=O group of Asn98 to allow for attractive orthogonal multipolar interactions, the distances in the lactam series are too large (> or =4 Angstroms) for attractive dipolar contacts to be effective.
Laboratorium für Organische Chemie, ETH-Zürich, Hönggerberg HCI, Switzerland.