The Structure of G Protein-coupled Receptor Kinase (GRK)-6 Defines a Second Lineage of GRKs.Lodowski, D.T., Tesmer, V.M., Benovic, J.L., Tesmer, J.J.
(2006) J Biol Chem 281: 16785-16793
- PubMed: 16613860
- DOI: https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M601327200
- Primary Citation of Related Structures:
- PubMed Abstract:
We describe the 2.6-A crystal structure of human G protein-coupled receptor kinase (GRK)-6, a key regulator of dopaminergic signaling and lymphocyte chemotaxis. GRK6 is a member of the GRK4 subfamily of GRKs, which is represented in most, if not all, metazoans. Comparison of GRK6 with GRK2 confirms that the catalytic core of all GRKs consists of intimately associated kinase and regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) homology domains. Despite being in complex with an ATP analog, the kinase domain of GRK6 remains in an open, presumably inactive conformation, suggesting that G protein-coupled receptors activate GRKs by inducing kinase domain closure. The structure reveals a putative phospholipid-binding site near the N terminus of GRK6 and structural elements within the kinase substrate channel that likely influence G protein-coupled receptor access and specificity. The crystalline GRK6 RGS homology domain forms an extensive dimer interface using conserved hydrophobic residues distinct from those in GRK2 that bind Galpha(q), although dimerization does not appear to occur in solution and is not required for receptor phosphorylation.
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Institute for Cellular and Molecular Biology, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712-0165, USA.