1ZRB

Thrombin in complex with an azafluorenyl inhibitor 23b


Experimental Data Snapshot

  • Method: X-RAY DIFFRACTION
  • Resolution: 1.9 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.279 
  • R-Value Work: 0.223 

wwPDB Validation 3D Report Full Report


This is version 1.4 of the entry. See complete history

Literature

9-hydroxyazafluorenes and their use in thrombin inhibitors

Stauffer, K.J.Williams, P.D.Selnick, H.G.Nantermet, P.G.Newton, C.L.Homnick, C.F.Zrada, M.M.Lewis, S.D.Lucas, B.J.Krueger, J.A.Pietrak, B.L.Lyle, E.A.Singh, R.Miller-Stein, C.White, R.B.Wong, B.Wallace, A.A.Sitko, G.R.Cook, J.J.Holahan, M.A.Stranieri-Michener, M.Leonard, Y.M.Lynch Jr., J.J.McMasters, D.R.Yan, Y.

(2005) J.Med.Chem. 48: 2282-2293

  • DOI: 10.1021/jm049423s

  • PubMed Abstract: 
  • Optimization of a previously reported thrombin inhibitor, 9-hydroxy-9-fluorenylcarbonyl-l-prolyl-trans-4-aminocyclohexylmethylamide (1), by replacing the aminocyclohexyl P1 group provided a new lead structure, 9-hydroxy-9-fluorenylcarbonyl-l-prolyl-2 ...

    Optimization of a previously reported thrombin inhibitor, 9-hydroxy-9-fluorenylcarbonyl-l-prolyl-trans-4-aminocyclohexylmethylamide (1), by replacing the aminocyclohexyl P1 group provided a new lead structure, 9-hydroxy-9-fluorenylcarbonyl-l-prolyl-2-aminomethyl-5-chlorobenzylamide (2), with improved potency (K(i) = 0.49 nM for human thrombin, 2x APTT = 0.37 microM in human plasma) and pharmacokinetic properties (F = 39%, iv T(1/2) = 13 h in dogs). An effective strategy for reducing plasma protein binding of 2 and improving efficacy in an in vivo thrombosis model in rats was to replace the lipophilic fluorenyl group in P3 with an azafluorenyl group. Systematic investigation of all possible azafluorenyl P3 isomers and azafluorenyl-N-oxide analogues of 2 led to the identification of an optimal compound, 3-aza-9-hydroxyfluoren-9(R)-ylcarbonyl-l-prolyl-2-aminomethyl-5-chlorobenzylamide (19b), with high potency (K(i) = 0.40 nM, 2x APTT = 0.18 microM), excellent pharmacokinetic properties (F = 55%, T(1/2) = 14 h in dogs), and complete efficacy in the in vivo thrombosis model in rats (inhibition of FeCl(3)-induced vessel occlusions in six of six rats receiving an intravenous infusion of 10 microg/kg/min of 19b). The stereochemistry of the azafluorenyl group in 19b was determined by X-ray crystallographic analysis of its N-oxide derivative (23b) bound in the active site of human thrombin.


    Organizational Affiliation

    Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Biological Chemistry, Pharmacology, Drug Metabolism, and Molecular Systems, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, Pennsylvania 19486, USA. ken_stauffer@merck.com




Macromolecules

Find similar proteins by: Sequence  |  Structure

Entity ID: 1
MoleculeChainsSequence LengthOrganismDetails
thrombin
A
287Homo sapiensMutation(s): 0 
Gene Names: F2
EC: 3.4.21.5
Find proteins for P00734 (Homo sapiens)
Go to Gene View: F2
Go to UniProtKB:  P00734
Entity ID: 2
MoleculeChainsSequence LengthOrganismDetails
11-peptide hirudin fragment
B
11Hirudo medicinalisMutation(s): 0 
Find proteins for P28504 (Hirudo medicinalis)
Go to UniProtKB:  P28504
Small Molecules
Ligands 1 Unique
IDChainsName / Formula / InChI Key2D Diagram3D Interactions
062
Query on 062

Download SDF File 
Download CCD File 
A
3-AZA-9-HYDROXY-9-FLUORENYLCARBONYL-L-PROLYL-2-AMINOMETHYL-5-CHLOROBENZYLAMIDE, N-OXIDE
C26 H25 Cl N4 O4
GVACNUIKZUGUGU-JYFHCDHNSA-N
 Ligand Interaction
Modified Residues  1 Unique
IDChainsTypeFormula2D DiagramParent
TYS
Query on TYS
B
L-PEPTIDE LINKINGC9 H11 N O6 STYR
External Ligand Annotations 
IDBinding Affinity (Sequence Identity %)
062Ki: 0.77 nM BINDINGMOAD
Experimental Data & Validation

Experimental Data

  • Method: X-RAY DIFFRACTION
  • Resolution: 1.9 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.279 
  • R-Value Work: 0.223 
  • Space Group: C 1 2 1
Unit Cell:
Length (Å)Angle (°)
a = 69.390α = 90.00
b = 71.310β = 100.35
c = 72.150γ = 90.00
Software Package:
Software NamePurpose
DENZOdata reduction
SCALEPACKdata scaling
CNSrefinement
CNSphasing

Structure Validation

View Full Validation Report or Ramachandran Plots



Entry History 

Revision History 

  • Version 1.0: 2005-06-07
    Type: Initial release
  • Version 1.1: 2008-04-30
    Type: Version format compliance
  • Version 1.2: 2011-07-13
    Type: Atomic model, Database references, Derived calculations, Non-polymer description, Structure summary, Version format compliance
  • Version 1.3: 2012-12-12
    Type: Other
  • Version 1.4: 2013-03-13
    Type: Other