X-ray crystallographic structures of D-xylose isomerase-substrate complexes position the substrate and provide evidence for metal movement during catalysis.Lavie, A., Allen, K.N., Petsko, G.A., Ringe, D.
(1994) Biochemistry 33: 5469-5480
- PubMed: 8180169
- DOI: 10.1021/bi00184a016
- Primary Citation of Related Structures:
1XYC, 1XYB, 1XYA
- PubMed Abstract:
- Isotopic Exchange Plus Substrate and Inhibition Kinetics of D-Xylose Isomerase Do not Support a Proton-Transfer Mechanism
Allen, K.N., Lavie, A., Farber, G.K., Glasfeld, A., Petsko, G.A., Ringe, D.
(1994) Biochemistry 33: 1481
- The Role of the Divalent Metal Ion in Sugar Binding, Ring Opening, and Isomerization by D-Xylose Isomerase: Replacement of a Catalytic Metal by an Amino-Acid
Allen, K.N., Lavie, A., Glasfeld, A., Tanada, T.N., Gerrity, D.P., Carlson, S.C., Farber, G.K., Petsko, G.A., Ringe, D.
(1994) Biochemistry 33: 1488
The X-ray crystallographic structures of the metal-activated enzyme xylose isomerase from Streptomyces olivochromogenes with the substrates D-glucose, 3-O-methyl-D-glucose and in the absence of substrate were determined to 1.96-, 2.19-, and 1.81-A resolution and refined to R-factors of 16 ...
The X-ray crystallographic structures of the metal-activated enzyme xylose isomerase from Streptomyces olivochromogenes with the substrates D-glucose, 3-O-methyl-D-glucose and in the absence of substrate were determined to 1.96-, 2.19-, and 1.81-A resolution and refined to R-factors of 16.6%, 15.9%, and 16.1%, respectively. Xylose isomerase catalyzes the interconversion between glucose and fructose (xylose and xylulose under physiological conditions) by utilizing two metal cofactors to promote a hydride shift; the metals are bridged by a glutamate residue. This puts xylose isomerase in the small but rapidly growing family of enzymes with a bridged bimetallic active site, in which both metals are involved in the chemical transformation. The substrate 3-O-methylglucose was chosen in order to position the glucose molecule in the observed electron density unambiguously. Of the two essential magnesium ions per active site, Mg-2 was observed to occupy two alternate positions, separated by 1.8 A, in the substrate-soaked structures. The deduced movement was not observed in the structure without substrate present and is attributed to a step following substrate binding but prior to isomerization. The substrates glucose and 3-O-methylglucose are observed in their linear extended forms and make identical interactions with the enzyme by forming ligands to Mg-1 through O2 and O4 and by forming hydrogen bonds with His53 through O5 and Lys182 through O1. Mg-2 has a water ligand that is interpreted in the crystal structure in the absence of substrate as a hydroxide ion and in the presence of substrate as a water molecule. This hydroxide ion may act as a base to deprotonate the glucose O2 and subsequently protonate the product fructose O1 concomitant with hydride transfer. Calculations of the solvent-accessible surface of possible dimers, with and without the alpha-helical C-terminal domain, suggest that the tetramer is the active form of this xylose isomerase.
Department of Biochemistry, Brandeis University, Massachusetts 02254-9110.