Crystal Structure Of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor From Xenopus Laevis.

Experimental Data Snapshot

  • Resolution: 2.50 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.266 
  • R-Value Work: 0.241 
  • R-Value Observed: 0.244 

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Xenopus laevis Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor Is Essential for Axis Formation and Neural Development.

Suzuki, M.Takamura, Y.Maeno, M.Tochinai, S.Iyaguchi, D.Tanaka, I.Nishihira, J.Ishibashi, T.

(2004) J Biol Chem 279: 21406-21414

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M311416200
  • Primary Citation of Related Structures:  

  • PubMed Abstract: 

    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is an immunoregulatory cytokine involved in both acquired and innate immunity. MIF also has many functions outside the immune system, such as isomerase and oxidoreductase activities and control of cell proliferation. Considering the involvement of MIF in various intra- and extracellular events, we expected that MIF might also be important in vertebrate development. To elucidate the possible role of MIF in developmental processes, we knocked down MIF in embryos of the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis, using MIF-specific morpholino oligomers (MOs). For the synthesis of the MOs, we cloned a cDNA for a Xenopus homolog of MIF. Sequence analysis, determination of the isomerase activity, and x-ray crystallographic analysis revealed that the protein encoded by the cDNA was the ortholog of mammalian MIF. We carried out whole mount in situ hybridization of MIF mRNA and found that MIF was expressed at high levels in the neural tissues of normal embryos. Although early embryogenesis of MO-injected embryos proceeded normally until the gastrula stage, their neurulation was completely inhibited. At the tailbud stage, the MO-injected embryos lacked neural and mesodermal tissues, and also showed severe defects in their head and tail structures. Thus, MIF was found to be essential for axis formation and neural development of Xenopus embryos.

  • Organizational Affiliation

    Department of Molecular Biochemistry, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Kita-15, Nishi-7, Sapporo 060-8638, Japan.

Find similar proteins by:  (by identity cutoff)  |  3D Structure
Entity ID: 1
MoleculeChains Sequence LengthOrganismDetailsImage
Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor
A, B, C, D
115Xenopus laevisMutation(s): 0 
Find proteins for Q76BK2 (Xenopus laevis)
Explore Q76BK2 
Go to UniProtKB:  Q76BK2
Entity Groups  
Sequence Clusters30% Identity50% Identity70% Identity90% Identity95% Identity100% Identity
UniProt GroupQ76BK2
Sequence Annotations
  • Reference Sequence
Experimental Data & Validation

Experimental Data

  • Resolution: 2.50 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.266 
  • R-Value Work: 0.241 
  • R-Value Observed: 0.244 
  • Space Group: H 3
Unit Cell:
Length ( Å )Angle ( ˚ )
a = 94.41α = 90
b = 94.41β = 90
c = 115.58γ = 120
Software Package:
Software NamePurpose

Structure Validation

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Entry History 

Deposition Data

Revision History  (Full details and data files)

  • Version 1.0: 2004-05-25
    Type: Initial release
  • Version 1.1: 2008-04-27
    Changes: Version format compliance
  • Version 1.2: 2011-07-13
    Changes: Version format compliance
  • Version 1.3: 2017-10-04
    Changes: Refinement description
  • Version 1.4: 2023-12-27
    Changes: Data collection, Database references