Structure of the Complex of Calmodulin with the Target Sequence of Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase I: Studies of the Kinase Activation MechanismClapperton, J.A., Martin, S.R., Smerdon, S.J., Gamblin, S.J., Bayley, P.M.
(2002) Biochemistry 41: 14669-14679
- PubMed: 12475216
- DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/bi026660t
- Primary Citation of Related Structures:
- PubMed Abstract:
Calcium-saturated calmodulin (CaM) directly activates CaM-dependent protein kinase I (CaMKI) by binding to a region in the C-terminal regulatory sequence of the enzyme to relieve autoinhibition. The structure of CaM in a high-affinity complex with a 25-residue peptide of CaMKI (residues 294-318) has been determined by X-ray crystallography at 1.7 A resolution. Upon complex formation, the CaMKI peptide adopts an alpha-helical conformation, while changes in the CaM domain linker enable both its N- and C-domains to wrap around the peptide helix. Target peptide residues Trp-303 (interacting with the CaM C-domain) and Met-316 (with the CaM N-domain) define the mode of binding as 1-14. In addition, two basic patches on the peptide form complementary charge interactions with CaM. The CaM-peptide affinity is approximately 1 pM, compared with 30 nM for the CaM-kinase complex, indicating that activation of autoinhibited CaMKI by CaM requires a costly energetic disruption of the interactions between the CaM-binding sequence and the rest of the enzyme. We present biochemical and structural evidence indicating the involvement of both CaM domains in the activation process: while the C-domain exhibits tight binding toward the regulatory sequence, the N-domain is necessary for activation. Our crystal structure also enables us to identify the full CaM-binding sequence. Residues Lys-296 and Phe-298 from the target peptide interact directly with CaM, demonstrating overlap between the autoinhibitory and CaM-binding sequences. Thus, the kinase activation mechanism involves the binding of CaM to residues associated with the inhibitory pseudosubstrate sequence.
Division of Protein Structure, National Institute for Medical Research, Mill Hill, London NW7 1AA, UK.