Experimental Data Snapshot

  • Resolution: 2.81 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.245 
  • R-Value Work: 0.207 
  • R-Value Observed: 0.207 

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Crystal structure of ATP sulfurylase from Penicillium chrysogenum: insights into the allosteric regulation of sulfate assimilation.

MacRae, I.J.Segel, I.H.Fisher, A.J.

(2001) Biochemistry 40: 6795-6804

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/bi010367w
  • Primary Citation of Related Structures:  

  • PubMed Abstract: 

    ATP sulfurylase from Penicillium chrysogenum is an allosterically regulated enzyme composed of six identical 63.7 kDa subunits (573 residues). The C-terminal allosteric domain of each subunit is homologous to APS kinase. In the presence of APS, the enzyme crystallized in the orthorhombic space group (I222) with unit cell parameters of a = 135.7 A, b = 162.1 A, and c = 273.0 A. The X-ray structure at 2.8 A resolution established that the hexameric enzyme is a dimer of triads in the shape of an oblate ellipsoid 140 A diameter x 70 A. Each subunit is divided into a discreet N-terminal domain, a central catalytic domain, and a C-terminal allosteric domain. Two molecules of APS bound per subunit clearly identify the catalytic and allosteric domains. The sequence 197QXRN200 is largely responsible for anchoring the phosphosulfate group of APS at the active site of the catalytic domain. The specificity of the catalytic site for adenine nucleotides is established by specific hydrogen bonds to the protein main chain. APS was bound to the allosteric site through sequence-specific interactions with amino acid side chains that are conserved in true APS kinase. Within a given triad, the allosteric domain of one subunit interacts with the catalytic domain of another. There are also allosteric-allosteric, allosteric-N-terminal, and catalytic-catalytic domain interactions across the triad interface. The overall interactions-each subunit with four others-provide stability to the hexamer as well as a way to propagate a concerted allosteric transition. The structure presented here is believed to be the R state. A solvent channel, 15-70 A wide exists along the 3-fold axis, but substrates have access to the catalytic site only from the external medium. On the other hand, a surface "trench" links each catalytic site in one triad with an allosteric site in the other triad. This trench may be a vestigial feature of a bifunctional ("PAPS synthetase") ancestor of fungal ATP sulfurylase.

  • Organizational Affiliation

    Section of Molecular and Cellular Biology and Department of Chemistry, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, California 95616, USA.

Find similar proteins by:  (by identity cutoff)  |  3D Structure
Entity ID: 1
MoleculeChains Sequence LengthOrganismDetailsImage
A, B, C
573Penicillium chrysogenumMutation(s): 0 
Gene Names: APS
Find proteins for Q12650 (Penicillium chrysogenum)
Explore Q12650 
Go to UniProtKB:  Q12650
Entity Groups  
Sequence Clusters30% Identity50% Identity70% Identity90% Identity95% Identity100% Identity
UniProt GroupQ12650
Sequence Annotations
  • Reference Sequence
Experimental Data & Validation

Experimental Data

  • Resolution: 2.81 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.245 
  • R-Value Work: 0.207 
  • R-Value Observed: 0.207 
  • Space Group: I 2 2 2
Unit Cell:
Length ( Å )Angle ( ˚ )
a = 135.67α = 90
b = 162.09β = 90
c = 273γ = 90
Software Package:
Software NamePurpose
DENZOdata reduction
SCALEPACKdata scaling

Structure Validation

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Entry History 

Deposition Data

Revision History  (Full details and data files)

  • Version 1.0: 2001-07-11
    Type: Initial release
  • Version 1.1: 2008-04-01
    Changes: Version format compliance
  • Version 1.2: 2011-07-13
    Changes: Version format compliance
  • Version 1.3: 2024-02-07
    Changes: Data collection, Database references, Derived calculations