Molecular Mechanism for the Regulation of Protein Kinase B/Akt by Hydrophobic Motif PhosphorylationYang, J., Cron, P., Thompson, V., Good, V., Hess, D., Hemmings, B.A., Barford, D.
(2002) Mol Cell 9: 1227
- PubMed: 12086620
- DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/s1097-2765(02)00550-6
- Primary Citation of Related Structures:
1GZK, 1GZN, 1GZO
- PubMed Abstract:
Protein kinase B/Akt plays crucial roles in promoting cell survival and mediating insulin responses. The enzyme is stimulated by phosphorylation at two regulatory sites: Thr 309 of the activation segment and Ser 474 of the hydrophobic motif, a conserved feature of many AGC kinases. Analysis of the crystal structures of the unphosphorylated and Thr 309 phosphorylated states of the PKB kinase domain provides a molecular explanation for regulation by Ser 474 phosphorylation. Activation by Ser 474 phosphorylation occurs via a disorder to order transition of the alphaC helix with concomitant restructuring of the activation segment and reconfiguration of the kinase bilobal structure. These conformational changes are mediated by a phosphorylation-promoted interaction of the hydrophobic motif with a channel on the N-terminal lobe induced by the ordered alphaC helix and are mimicked by peptides corresponding to the hydrophobic motif of PKB and potently by the hydrophobic motif of PRK2.
Section of Structural Biology, Institute of Cancer Research, Chester Beatty Laboratories, 237 Fulham Road, London SW3 6JB, UK.