Crystal Structure of the Human Alpha-Thrombin-Haemadin Complex: An Exosite II-Binding InhibitorRichardson, J.L., Kroeger, B., Hoeffken, W., Sadler, J.E., Pereira, P., Huber, R., Bode, W., Fuentes-Prior, P.
(2000) Embo J. 19: 5650
- PubMed: 11060016
- DOI: 10.1093/emboj/19.21.5650
- PubMed Abstract:
- The Refined 1.9 Angstrom X-Ray Crystal Structure of D-Phe-Pro-Arg-Chloromethylketone Inhibited Human Alpha Thrombin: Structure Analysis, Overall Structure, Electrostatic Properties, Detailed Active Site Geometry and Structure Function Relatioships
Bode, W.,Turk, D.,Karshikov, A.
(1992) Protein Sci. 1: 426
- Isolation, Sequence Analysis, and Cloning of Haemadin an Anticoagulant Peptide from the Indian Leech
Strube, K.-H.,Kroeger, B.,Bialojan, S.,Otte, M.,Dodt, J.
(1993) J.Biol.Chem. 268: 8590
The serine proteinase alpha-thrombin plays a pivotal role in the regulation of blood fluidity, and therefore constitutes a primary target in the treatment of various haemostatic disorders. Haemadin is a slow tight- binding thrombin inhibitor from the ...
The serine proteinase alpha-thrombin plays a pivotal role in the regulation of blood fluidity, and therefore constitutes a primary target in the treatment of various haemostatic disorders. Haemadin is a slow tight- binding thrombin inhibitor from the land-living leech Haemadipsa sylvestris. Here we present the 3.1 A crystal structure of the human alpha-thrombin- haemadin complex. The N-terminal segment of haemadin binds to the active site of thrombin, forming a parallel beta-strand with residues Ser214-Gly216 of the proteinase. This mode of binding is similar to that observed in another leech-derived inhibitor, hirudin. In contrast to hirudin, however, the markedly acidic C-terminal peptide of haemadin does not bind the fibrinogen-recognition exosite, but interacts with the heparin-binding exosite of thrombin. Thus, haemadin binds to thrombin according to a novel mechanism, despite an overall structural similarity with hirudin. Haemadin inhibits both free and thrombomodulin-bound alpha-thrombin, but not intermediate activation forms such as meizothrombin. This specific anticoagulant ability of haemadin makes it an ideal candidate for an antithrombotic agent, as well as a starting point for the design of novel antithrombotics.
Max-Planck-Institut für Biochemie, D-82152 Martinsried, Department of Biotechnology, BASF Aktiengesellschaft, D-67056 Ludwigshafen, Germany. firstname.lastname@example.org