Ca(2+) bridges the C2 membrane-binding domain of protein kinase Calpha directly to phosphatidylserine.Verdaguer, N., Corbalan-Garcia, S., Ochoa, W.F., Fita, I., Gomez-Fernandez, J.C.
(1999) EMBO J 18: 6329-6338
- PubMed: 10562545
- DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/emboj/18.22.6329
- Primary Citation of Related Structures:
- PubMed Abstract:
The C2 domain acts as a membrane-targeting module in a diverse group of proteins including classical protein kinase Cs (PKCs), where it plays an essential role in activation via calcium-dependent interactions with phosphatidylserine. The three-dimensional structures of the Ca(2+)-bound forms of the PKCalpha-C2 domain both in the absence and presence of 1, 2-dicaproyl-sn-phosphatidyl-L-serine have now been determined by X-ray crystallography at 2.4 and 2.6 A resolution, respectively. In the structure of the C2 ternary complex, the glycerophosphoserine moiety of the phospholipid adopts a quasi-cyclic conformation, with the phosphoryl group directly coordinated to one of the Ca(2+) ions. Specific recognition of the phosphatidylserine is reinforced by additional hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions with protein residues in the vicinity of the Ca(2+) binding region. The central feature of the PKCalpha-C2 domain structure is an eight-stranded, anti-parallel beta-barrel with a molecular topology and organization of the Ca(2+) binding region closely related to that found in PKCbeta-C2, although only two Ca(2+) ions have been located bound to the PKCalpha-C2 domain. The structural information provided by these results suggests a membrane binding mechanism of the PKCalpha-C2 domain in which calcium ions directly mediate the phosphatidylserine recognition while the calcium binding region 3 might penetrate into the phospholipid bilayer.
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