NMR solution structure of a leaf-specific-expressed cyclotide vhl-1

Experimental Data Snapshot

  • Method: SOLUTION NMR
  • Conformers Calculated: 50 
  • Conformers Submitted: 20 
  • Selection Criteria: structures with the least restraint violations 

wwPDB Validation   3D Report Full Report

This is version 1.3 of the entry. See complete history


Isolation and characterization of novel cyclotides from Viola hederaceae: solution structure and anti-HIV activity of vhl-1, a leaf-specific expressed cyclotide.

Chen, B.Colgrave, M.L.Daly, N.L.Rosengren, K.J.Gustafson, K.R.Craik, D.J.

(2005) J Biol Chem 280: 22395-22405

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M501737200
  • Primary Citation of Related Structures:  

  • PubMed Abstract: 

    Based on a newly established sequencing strategy featured by its efficiency, simplicity, and easy manipulation, the sequences of four novel cyclotides (macrocyclic knotted proteins) isolated from an Australian plant Viola hederaceae were determined. The three-dimensional solution structure of V. hederaceae leaf cyclotide-1 (vhl-1), a leaf-specific expressed 31-residue cyclotide, has been determined using two-dimensional (1)H NMR spectroscopy. vhl-1 adopts a compact and well defined structure including a distorted triple-stranded beta-sheet, a short 3(10) helical segment and several turns. It is stabilized by three disulfide bonds, which, together with backbone segments, form a cyclic cystine knot motif. The three-disulfide bonds are almost completely buried into the protein core, and the six cysteines contribute only 3.8% to the molecular surface. A pH titration experiment revealed that the folding of vhl-1 shows little pH dependence and allowed the pK(a) of 3.0 for Glu(3) and approximately 5.0 for Glu(14) to be determined. Met(7) was found to be oxidized in the native form, consistent with the fact that its side chain protrudes into the solvent, occupying 7.5% of the molecular surface. vhl-1 shows anti-HIV activity with an EC(50) value of 0.87 microm.

  • Organizational Affiliation

    Institute for Molecular Bioscience, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072, Australia.

Find similar proteins by:  (by identity cutoff)  |  3D Structure
Entity ID: 1
MoleculeChains Sequence LengthOrganismDetailsImage
vhl-131Viola hederaceaMutation(s): 0 
Find proteins for P84522 (Viola hederacea)
Explore P84522 
Go to UniProtKB:  P84522
Entity Groups  
Sequence Clusters30% Identity50% Identity70% Identity90% Identity95% Identity100% Identity
UniProt GroupP84522
Sequence Annotations
  • Reference Sequence
Experimental Data & Validation

Experimental Data

  • Method: SOLUTION NMR
  • Conformers Calculated: 50 
  • Conformers Submitted: 20 
  • Selection Criteria: structures with the least restraint violations 

Structure Validation

View Full Validation Report

Entry History 

Deposition Data

Revision History  (Full details and data files)

  • Version 1.0: 2005-04-12
    Type: Initial release
  • Version 1.1: 2008-04-30
    Changes: Version format compliance
  • Version 1.2: 2011-07-13
    Changes: Version format compliance
  • Version 1.3: 2022-03-02
    Changes: Data collection, Database references, Derived calculations