Human aldose reductase in complex with NADP+ and the inhibitor lidorestat at 1.04 angstrom

Experimental Data Snapshot

  • Resolution: 1.04 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.125 
  • R-Value Work: 0.091 
  • R-Value Observed: 0.098 

wwPDB Validation   3D Report Full Report

This is version 1.2 of the entry. See complete history


Discovery of 3-[(4,5,7-trifluorobenzothiazol-2-yl)methyl]indole-N-acetic acid (lidorestat) and congeners as highly potent and selective inhibitors of aldose reductase for treatment of chronic diabetic complications

Van Zandt, M.C.Jones, M.L.Gunn, D.E.Geraci, L.S.Jones, J.H.Sawicki, D.R.Sredy, J.Jacot, J.L.Dicioccio, A.T.Petrova, T.Mitschler, A.Podjarny, A.D.

(2005) J Med Chem 48: 3141-3152

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/jm0492094
  • Primary Citation of Related Structures:  

  • PubMed Abstract: 

    Recent efforts to identify treatments for chronic diabetic complications have resulted in the discovery of a novel series of highly potent and selective 3-[(benzothiazol-2-yl)methyl]indole-N-alkanoic acid aldose reductase inhibitors. The lead candidate, 3-[(4,5,7-trifluorobenzothiazol-2-yl)methyl]indole-N-acetic acid (lidorestat, 9) inhibits aldose reductase with an IC(50) of 5 nM, while being 5400 times less active against aldehyde reductase, a related enzyme involved in the detoxification of reactive aldehydes. It lowers nerve and lens sorbitol levels with ED(50)'s of 1.9 and 4.5 mg/kg/d po, respectively, in the 5-day STZ-induced diabetic rat model. In a 3-month diabetic intervention model (1 month of diabetes followed by 2 months of drug treatment at 5 mg/kg/d po), it normalizes polyols and reduces the motor nerve conduction velocity deficit by 59% relative to diabetic controls. It has a favorable pharmacokinetic profile (F, 82%; t(1/2), 5.6 h; Vd, 0.694 L/kg) with good drug penetration in target tissues (C(max) in sciatic nerve and eye are 2.36 and 1.45 mug equiv/g, respectively, when dosed with [(14)C]lidorestat at 10 mg/kg po).

  • Organizational Affiliation

    The Institute for Diabetes Discovery, LLC, 23 Business Park Drive, Branford, Connecticut 06405, USA. michael.vanzandt@ ipd-discovery.com

Find similar proteins by:  (by identity cutoff)  |  3D Structure
Entity ID: 1
MoleculeChains Sequence LengthOrganismDetailsImage
aldose reductase319Homo sapiensMutation(s): 0 
Gene Names: AKR1B1ALDR1ALR2
EC: (PDB Primary Data), (UniProt), (UniProt), (UniProt)
UniProt & NIH Common Fund Data Resources
Find proteins for P15121 (Homo sapiens)
Explore P15121 
Go to UniProtKB:  P15121
PHAROS:  P15121
Entity Groups  
Sequence Clusters30% Identity50% Identity70% Identity90% Identity95% Identity100% Identity
UniProt GroupP15121
Sequence Annotations
  • Reference Sequence
Small Molecules
Ligands 2 Unique
IDChains Name / Formula / InChI Key2D Diagram3D Interactions
Query on NDP

Download Ideal Coordinates CCD File 
C21 H30 N7 O17 P3
Query on 3NA

Download Ideal Coordinates CCD File 
C18 H11 F3 N2 O2 S
Binding Affinity Annotations 
IDSourceBinding Affinity
3NA BindingDB:  1Z3N IC50: min: 5, max: 2.70e+4 (nM) from 3 assay(s)
Binding MOAD:  1Z3N IC50: 5 (nM) from 1 assay(s)
Experimental Data & Validation

Experimental Data

  • Resolution: 1.04 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.125 
  • R-Value Work: 0.091 
  • R-Value Observed: 0.098 
  • Space Group: P 1 21 1
Unit Cell:
Length ( Å )Angle ( ˚ )
a = 50.14α = 90
b = 67.34β = 92.5
c = 47.88γ = 90
Software Package:
Software NamePurpose
DENZOdata reduction
SCALEPACKdata scaling
X-PLORmodel building
SHELXmodel building
Omodel building

Structure Validation

View Full Validation Report

Entry History 

Revision History  (Full details and data files)

  • Version 1.0: 2006-03-14
    Type: Initial release
  • Version 1.1: 2008-04-30
    Changes: Version format compliance
  • Version 1.2: 2011-07-13
    Changes: Version format compliance