Crystal Structure of the Interferon-induced Ubiquitin-like Protein ISG15.Narasimhan, J., Wang, M., Fu, Z., Klein, J.M., Haas, A.L., Kim, J.J.
(2005) J.Biol.Chem. 280: 27356-27365
- PubMed: 15917233
- DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M502814200
- PubMed Abstract:
The biological effects of the ISG15 protein arise in part from its conjugation to cellular targets as a primary response to interferon-alpha/beta induction and other markers of viral or parasitic infection. Recombinant full-length ISG15 has been prod ...
The biological effects of the ISG15 protein arise in part from its conjugation to cellular targets as a primary response to interferon-alpha/beta induction and other markers of viral or parasitic infection. Recombinant full-length ISG15 has been produced for the first time in high yield by mutating Cys78 to stabilize the protein and by cloning in a C-terminal arginine cap to protect the C terminus against proteolytic inactivation. The cap is subsequently removed with carboxypeptidase B to yield mature biologically active ISG15 capable of stoichiometric ATP-dependent thiolester formation with its human UbE1L activating enzyme. The three-dimensional structure of recombinant ISG15C78S was determined at 2.4-A resolution. The ISG15 structure comprises two beta-grasp folds having main chain root mean square deviation (r.m.s.d.) values from ubiquitin of 1.7 A (N-terminal) and 1.0 A (C-terminal). The beta-grasp domains pack across two conserved 3(10) helices to bury 627 A2 that accounts for 7% of the total solvent-accessible surface area. The distribution of ISG15 surface charge forms a ridge of negative charge extending nearly the full-length of the molecule. Additionally, the N-terminal domain contains an apolar region comprising almost half its solvent accessible surface. The C-terminal domain of ISG15 was superimposed on the structure of Nedd8 (r.m.s.d. = 0.84 A) bound to its AppBp1-Uba3 activating enzyme to model ISG15 binding to UbE1L. The docking model predicts several key side-chain interactions that presumably define the specificity between the ubiquitin and ISG15 ligation pathways to maintain functional integrity of their signaling.
Department of Biochemistry, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53226, USA.