Structural Studies on the Reaction of Isopenicillin N Synthase with the Truncated Substrate Analogues Delta-(L-Alpha-Aminoadipoyl)-L-Cysteinyl-Glycine and Delta-(L-Alpha-Aminoadipoyl)-L-Cysteinyl-D- AlanineLong, A.J., Clifton, I.J., Roach, P.L., Baldwin, J.E., Schofield, C.J., Rutledge, P.J.
(2005) Biochemistry 44: 6619
- PubMed: 15850395
- DOI: 10.1021/bi047478q
- Primary Citation of Related Structures:
- PubMed Abstract:
Isopenicillin N synthase (IPNS), a non-heme iron(II)-dependent oxidase, catalyzes conversion of the tripeptide delta-(l-alpha-aminoadipoyl)-l-cysteinyl-d-valine (ACV) to bicyclic isopenicillin N (IPN), concomitant with the reduction of dioxygen to tw ...
Isopenicillin N synthase (IPNS), a non-heme iron(II)-dependent oxidase, catalyzes conversion of the tripeptide delta-(l-alpha-aminoadipoyl)-l-cysteinyl-d-valine (ACV) to bicyclic isopenicillin N (IPN), concomitant with the reduction of dioxygen to two molecules of water. Incubation of the "truncated"substrate analogues delta-(l-alpha-aminoadipoyl)-l-cysteinyl-glycine (ACG) and delta-(l-alpha-aminoadipoyl)-l-cysteinyl-d-alanine (ACA) with IPNS has previously been shown to afford acyclic products, in which the substrate cysteinyl residue has undergone a two-electron oxidation. We report X-ray crystal structures for the anaerobic IPNS/Fe(II)/ACG and IPNS/Fe(II)/ACA complexes, both in the absence and presence of the dioxygen analogue nitric oxide. The overall protein structures are very similar to those of the corresponding IPNS/Fe(II)/ACV complexes; however, significant differences are apparent in the vicinity of the active site iron. The structure of the IPNS/Fe(II)/ACG complex reveals that the C-terminal carboxylate of this substrate is oriented toward the active site iron atom, apparently hydrogen-bonded to an additional water ligand at the metal; this is a different binding mode to that observed in the IPNS/Fe(II)/ACV complex. ACA binds to the metal in a manner that is intermediate between those observed for ACV and ACG. The addition of NO to these complexes initiates conformational changes such that both the IPNS/Fe(II)/ACG/NO and IPNS/Fe(II)/ACA/NO structures closely resemble the IPNS/Fe(II)/ACV/NO complex. These results further demonstrate the feasibility of metal-centered rearrangements in catalysis by non-heme iron enzymes and provide insight into the delicate balance between hydrophilic-hydrophobic interactions and steric effects in the IPNS active site.
Chemistry Research Laboratory, University of Oxford, UK.