The crystal structure of transthyretin in complex with diethylstilbestrol: a promising template for the design of amyloid inhibitorsMorais-de-Sa, E.M., Pereira, P.J.B., Saraiva, M.J., Damas, A.M.
(2004) J.Biol.Chem. 279: 53483-53490
- PubMed: 15469931
- DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M408053200
- Primary Citation of Related Structures:  1TT6
- PubMed Abstract:
Transthyretin (TTR) is a homotetrameric plasma protein that, in conditions not yet completely understood, may aggregate, forming the fibrillar material associated with TTR amyloidosis. A number of reported experiments indicate that dissociation of th ...
Transthyretin (TTR) is a homotetrameric plasma protein that, in conditions not yet completely understood, may aggregate, forming the fibrillar material associated with TTR amyloidosis. A number of reported experiments indicate that dissociation of the TTR tetramer occurs prior to fibril formation, and therefore, studies aiming at the discovery of compounds that stabilize the protein quaternary structure, thereby acting as amyloid inhibitors, are being performed. The ability of diethylstilbestrol (DES) to act as a competitive inhibitor for the thyroid hormone binding to TTR indicated a possible stabilizing effect of DES upon binding. Here we report the crystallographic study of DES binding to TTR. The structural data reveal two different binding modes, both located in the thyroxine binding channel. In both cases, DES binds deeply in the channel and establishes interactions with the equivalent molecule present in the adjacent binding site. The most remarkable features of DES interaction with TTR are its hydrophobic interactions within the protein halogen binding pockets, where its ethyl groups are snugly fitted, and the hydrogen bonds established at the center of the tetramer with Ser-117. Experiments concerning amyloid formation in vitro suggest that DES is effectively an amyloid inhibitor in acid-mediated fibrillogenesis and may be used for the design of more powerful drugs. The present study gave us further insight in the molecular mechanism by which DES competes with thyroid hormone binding to TTR and highlights key interactions between DES and TTR that oppose amyloid formation.
Molecular Structure and Molecular Neurobiology, Instituto de Biologia Molecular e Celular, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, Number 823, 4150 Porto, Portugal.