1T24

Plasmodium falciparum lactate dehydrogenase complexed with NAD+ and 4-hydroxy-1,2,5-oxadiazole-3-carboxylic acid


Experimental Data Snapshot

  • Method: X-RAY DIFFRACTION
  • Resolution: 1.70 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.167 
  • R-Value Work: 0.142 
  • R-Value Observed: 0.144 

wwPDB Validation   3D Report Full Report


This is version 1.2 of the entry. See complete history


Literature

Identification and Activity of a Series of Azole-based Compounds with Lactate Dehydrogenase-directed Anti-malarial Activity.

Cameron, A.Read, J.Tranter, R.Winter, V.J.Sessions, R.B.Brady, R.L.Vivas, L.Easton, A.Kendrick, H.Croft, S.L.Barros, D.Lavandera, J.L.Martin, J.J.Risco, F.Garcia-Ochoa, S.Gamo, F.J.Sanz, L.Leon, L.Ruiz, J.R.Gabarro, R.Mallo, A.De Las Heras, F.G.

(2004) J Biol Chem 279: 31429-31439

  • DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M402433200
  • Primary Citation of Related Structures:  
    1T2F, 1T2E, 1T2D, 1T2C, 1T26, 1T25, 1T24

  • PubMed Abstract: 
  • Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent of malaria, relies extensively on glycolysis coupled with homolactic fermentation during its blood-borne stages for energy production. Selective inhibitors of the parasite lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), central to NAD(+) regeneration, therefore potentially provide a route to new antimalarial drugs directed against a novel molecular target ...

    Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent of malaria, relies extensively on glycolysis coupled with homolactic fermentation during its blood-borne stages for energy production. Selective inhibitors of the parasite lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), central to NAD(+) regeneration, therefore potentially provide a route to new antimalarial drugs directed against a novel molecular target. A series of heterocyclic, azole-based compounds are described that preferentially inhibit P. falciparum LDH at sub-micromolar concentrations, typically at concentrations about 100-fold lower than required for human lactate dehydrogenase inhibition. Crystal structures show these competitive inhibitors form a network of interactions with amino acids within the active site of the enzyme, stacking alongside the nicotinamide ring of the NAD(+) cofactor. These compounds display modest activity against parasitized erythrocytes, including parasite strains with known resistance to existing anti-malarials and against Plasmodium berghei in BALB/c mice. Initial toxicity data suggest the azole derivatives have generally low cytotoxicity, and preliminary pharmoco-kinetic data show favorable bioavailability and circulation times. These encouraging results suggest that further enhancement of these structures may yield candidates suitable for consideration as new therapeutics for the treatment of malaria. In combination these studies also provide strong support for the validity of targeting the Plasmodium glycolytic pathway and, in particular, LDH in the search for novel anti-malarials.


    Organizational Affiliation

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Recognition Centre, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TD, United Kingdom.



Macromolecules
Find similar proteins by:  (by identity cutoff)  |  Structure
Entity ID: 1
MoleculeChainsSequence LengthOrganismDetailsImage
L-lactate dehydrogenaseA322Plasmodium falciparumMutation(s): 0 
Gene Names: LDH
EC: 1.1.1.27
UniProt
Find proteins for Q27743 (Plasmodium falciparum (isolate CDC / Honduras))
Explore Q27743 
Go to UniProtKB:  Q27743
Protein Feature View
Expand
  • Reference Sequence
Small Molecules
Ligands 3 Unique
IDChainsName / Formula / InChI Key2D Diagram3D Interactions
NAD
Query on NAD

Download Ideal Coordinates CCD File 
B [auth A]NICOTINAMIDE-ADENINE-DINUCLEOTIDE
C21 H27 N7 O14 P2
BAWFJGJZGIEFAR-NNYOXOHSSA-N
 Ligand Interaction
OXQ
Query on OXQ

Download Ideal Coordinates CCD File 
C [auth A]4-HYDROXY-1,2,5-OXADIAZOLE-3-CARBOXYLIC ACID
C3 H2 N2 O4
IBRWUZLLHSXPKL-UHFFFAOYSA-N
 Ligand Interaction
GOL
Query on GOL

Download Ideal Coordinates CCD File 
D [auth A]GLYCEROL
C3 H8 O3
PEDCQBHIVMGVHV-UHFFFAOYSA-N
 Ligand Interaction
External Ligand Annotations 
IDBinding Affinity (Sequence Identity %)
OXQIC50:  650   nM  Binding MOAD
OXQKi:  210   nM  BindingDB
OXQIC50:  650   nM  BindingDB
Experimental Data & Validation

Experimental Data

  • Method: X-RAY DIFFRACTION
  • Resolution: 1.70 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.167 
  • R-Value Work: 0.142 
  • R-Value Observed: 0.144 
  • Space Group: I 2 2 2
Unit Cell:
Length ( Å )Angle ( ˚ )
a = 80.488α = 90
b = 85.914β = 90
c = 90.447γ = 90
Software Package:
Software NamePurpose
REFMACrefinement
DENZOdata reduction
SCALEPACKdata scaling
AMoREphasing

Structure Validation

View Full Validation Report



Entry History 

Revision History  (Full details and data files)

  • Version 1.0: 2004-05-11
    Type: Initial release
  • Version 1.1: 2008-04-30
    Changes: Version format compliance
  • Version 1.2: 2011-07-13
    Changes: Derived calculations, Version format compliance