1RWE

Enhancing the activity of insulin at receptor edge: crystal structure and photo-cross-linking of A8 analogues


Experimental Data Snapshot

  • Method: X-RAY DIFFRACTION
  • Resolution: 1.8 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.245 
  • R-Value Work: 0.189 

wwPDB Validation 3D Report Full Report


This is version 1.2 of the entry. See complete history

Literature

Enhancing the activity of insulin at the receptor interface: crystal structure and photo-cross-linking of A8 analogues.

Wan, Z.Xu, B.Huang, K.Chu, Y.C.Li, B.Nakagawa, S.H.Qu, Y.Hu, S.Q.Katsoyannis, P.G.Weiss, M.A.

(2004) Biochemistry 43: 16119-16133

  • DOI: 10.1021/bi048223f
  • Also Cited By: 3P2X, 3P33

  • PubMed Abstract: 
  • The receptor-binding surface of insulin is broadly conserved, reflecting its evolutionary optimization. Neighboring positions nevertheless offer an opportunity to enhance activity, through either transmitted structural changes or introduction of nove ...

    The receptor-binding surface of insulin is broadly conserved, reflecting its evolutionary optimization. Neighboring positions nevertheless offer an opportunity to enhance activity, through either transmitted structural changes or introduction of novel contacts. Nonconserved residue A8 is of particular interest as Thr(A8) --> His substitution (a species variant in birds and fish) augments the potency of human insulin. Diverse A8 substitutions are well tolerated, suggesting that the hormone-receptor interface is not tightly packed at this site. To resolve whether enhanced activity is directly or indirectly mediated by the variant A8 side chain, we have determined the crystal structure of His(A8)-insulin and investigated the photo-cross-linking properties of an A8 analogue containing p-azidophenylalanine. The structure, characterized as a T(3)R(3)(f) zinc hexamer at 1.8 A resolution, is essentially identical to that of native insulin. The photoactivatable analogue exhibits efficient cross-linking to the insulin receptor. The site of cross-linking lies within a 14 kDa C-terminal domain of the alpha-subunit. This contact, to our knowledge the first to be demonstrated from the A chain, is inconsistent with a recent model of the hormone-receptor complex derived from electron microscopy. Optimizing the binding interaction of a nonconserved side chain on the surface of insulin may thus enhance its activity.


    Related Citations: 
    • Phase changes in T3R3f human insulin: temperature or pressure insulin
      Smith, G.D.,Blessing, R.H.
      (2001) Acta Crystallogr.,Sect.D 57: 1091
    • X-ray crystallographic studies on hexameric insulins in the presence of helix-stabilizing agents,thiocyanate, methylparahben, and phenol
      Whittingham, J.L.,Chaudhuri, S.,Dodson, E.J.,Moody, P.C.,Dodson, G.G.
      (1995) Biochemistry 34: 15553
    • Role of c-terminal B-chain residues in insulin assemble: the structure of hexameric LysB28ProB29-human insulin
      Ciszak, E.,Beals, J.M.,Frank, B.H.,Baker, J.C.,Carter, D.C.,Smith, G.D.
      (1995) Structure 3: 615
    • Crystal structure of allo-IleA2-insulin, an , an inactive chiral analogue: implications for the mechanism of receptor binding
      Wan, Z.L.,Xu, B.,Chu, Y.C.,Katsoyannis, P.G.,Weiss, M.A.
      (2003) Biochemistry 42: 12770
    • Non-standard insulin design:structure-activity relationship at the periphery of the insulin receptor
      Weiss, M.A.,Wan, Z.L.,Zhao, M.,Chu, Y.C.,Nakagawa, S.H.,Burke, G.T.,Jia, W.H.,Hellmich, R.,Katsoyannis, P.G.
      (2002) J.Mol.Biol. 315: 103


    Organizational Affiliation

    Department of Biochemistry, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio 44106-4935, USA.




Macromolecules

Find similar proteins by: Sequence  |  Structure

Entity ID: 1
MoleculeChainsSequence LengthOrganismDetails
insulin
A, C
21Homo sapiensGene Names: INS
Find proteins for P01308 (Homo sapiens)
Go to Gene View: INS
Go to UniProtKB:  P01308
Entity ID: 2
MoleculeChainsSequence LengthOrganismDetails
Insulin
B, D
30Homo sapiensGene Names: INS
Find proteins for P01308 (Homo sapiens)
Go to Gene View: INS
Go to UniProtKB:  P01308
Small Molecules
Ligands 3 Unique
IDChainsName / Formula / InChI Key2D Diagram3D Interactions
ZN
Query on ZN

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B, D
ZINC ION
Zn
PTFCDOFLOPIGGS-UHFFFAOYSA-N
 Ligand Interaction
CL
Query on CL

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Download CCD File 
B, D
CHLORIDE ION
Cl
VEXZGXHMUGYJMC-UHFFFAOYSA-M
 Ligand Interaction
IPH
Query on IPH

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Download CCD File 
C
PHENOL
C6 H6 O
ISWSIDIOOBJBQZ-UHFFFAOYSA-N
 Ligand Interaction
Experimental Data & Validation

Experimental Data

  • Method: X-RAY DIFFRACTION
  • Resolution: 1.8 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.245 
  • R-Value Work: 0.189 
  • Space Group: H 3
Unit Cell:
Length (Å)Angle (°)
a = 79.341α = 90.00
b = 79.341β = 90.00
c = 34.708γ = 120.00
Software Package:
Software NamePurpose
SCALEPACKdata scaling
CNSrefinement
CNSphasing
DENZOdata reduction

Structure Validation

View Full Validation Report or Ramachandran Plots



Entry History 

Deposition Data

Revision History 

  • Version 1.0: 2005-02-15
    Type: Initial release
  • Version 1.1: 2008-04-29
    Type: Version format compliance
  • Version 1.2: 2011-07-13
    Type: Derived calculations, Version format compliance