Experimental Data Snapshot

  • Resolution: 1.9 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.252 
  • R-Value Work: 0.175 

wwPDB Validation 3D Report Full Report

This is version 1.2 of the entry. See complete history


Multiple wavelength anomalous diffraction (MAD) crystal structure of rusticyanin: a highly oxidizing cupredoxin with extreme acid stability.

Walter, R.L.Ealick, S.E.Friedman, A.M.Blake 2nd., R.C.Proctor, P.Shoham, M.

(1996) J.Mol.Biol. 263: 730-751

  • PubMed Abstract: 
  • The X-ray crystal structure of the oxidized form of the extremely stable and highly oxidizing cupredoxin rusticyanin from Thiobacillus ferrooxidans has been determined by the method of multiwavelength anomalous diffraction (MAD) and refined to 1.9 A ...

    The X-ray crystal structure of the oxidized form of the extremely stable and highly oxidizing cupredoxin rusticyanin from Thiobacillus ferrooxidans has been determined by the method of multiwavelength anomalous diffraction (MAD) and refined to 1.9 A resolution. Like other cupredoxins, rusticyanin is a copper-containing metalloprotein, which is composed of a core beta-sandwich fold. In rusticyanin the beta-sandwich is composed of a six- and a seven-stranded beta-sheet. Also like other cupredoxins, the copper ion is coordinated by a cluster of four conserved residues (His85, Cys138, His143, Met148) arranged in a distorted tetrahedron. Rusticyanin has a redox potential of 680 mV, roughly twice that of any other cupredoxin, and it is optimally active at pH values < or = 2. By comparison with other cupredoxins, the three-dimensional structure of rusticyanin reveals several possible sources of the chemical differences, including more ordered secondary structure and more intersheet connectivity than other cupredoxins. The acid stability and redox potential of rusticyanin may also be enhanced over other cupredoxins by a more extensive internal hydrogen bonding network and by more extensive hydrophobic interactions surrounding the copper binding site. Finally, reduction in the number of charged residues surrounding the active site may also make a major contribution to acid stability. We propose that the resulting rigid copper binding site, which is constrained by the surrounding hydrophobic environment, structurally and electronically favours Cu(I). We propose that the two extreme chemical properties of rusticyanin are interrelated; the same unique structural features that enhance acid stability also lead to elevated redox potential.

    Related Citations: 
    • Amino Acid Sequence of the Blue Copper Protein Rusticyanin from Thiobacillus Ferrooxidans
      Ronk, M.,Shively, J.E.,Shute, E.A.,Blake II, R.C.
      (1991) Biochemistry 30: 9435
    • Nuclear Magnetic Resonance 15N and 1H Resonance Assignments and Global Fold of Rusticyanin. Insights Into the Ligation and Acid Stability of the Blue Copper Site
      Hunt, A.H.,Toy-Palmer, A.,Assa-Munt, N.,Cavanagh, J.,Blake II, R.C.,Dyson, H.J.
      (1994) J.Mol.Biol. 244: 370
    • Respiratory Enzymes of Thiobacillus Ferrooxidans. A Kinetic Study of Electron Transfer between Iron and Rusticyanin in Sulfate Media
      Blake II, R.C.,Shute, E.A.
      (1987) J.Biol.Chem. 262: 14983
    • Madprb: A New Suite of Programs for MAD Data Analysis Incorporating Robust Estimation, Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference
      Friedman, A.M.,Fischmann, T.O.,Shamoo, Y.,Ealick, S.E.
      () TO BE PUBLISHED --: --
    • Crystallization and Preliminary X-Ray Crystallographic Studies of Rusticyanin from Thiobacillus Ferrooxidans
      Djebli, A.,Proctor, P.,Blake II, R.C.,Shoham, M.
      (1992) J.Mol.Biol. 227: 581
    • X-Ray Absorption Studies and Homology Modeling Define the Structural Features that Specify the Nature of the Copper Site in Rusticyanin
      Grossmann, J.G.,Ingledew, W.J.,Harvey, I.,Strange, R.W.,Hasnain, S.S.
      (1995) Biochemistry 34: 8406
    • Copper Protein Structures
      Adman, E.T.
      (1991) Adv.Protein Chem. 43: 145
    • The Purification and Some Properties of Rusticyanin, a Blue Copper Protein Involved in Iron(II) Oxidation from Thiobacillus Ferro-Oxidans
      Cox, J.C.,Boxer, D.H.
      (1978) Biochem.J. 174: 497
    • Complete 13C Assignments for Recombinant Cu(I) Rusticyanin. Prediction of Secondary Structure from Patterns of Chemical Shifts
      Toy-Palmer, A.,Prytulla, S.,Dyson, H.J.
      (1995) FEBS Lett. 365: 35
    • Respiratory Components in Acidophilic Bacteria that Respire on Iron
      Blake II, R.C.,Shute, E.A.,Waskovsky, J.,Harrison Junior, A.P.
      (1992) Geomicrobiol.J. 10: 173
    • The Respiratory Chain of Thiobacillus Ferrooxidans: The Reduction of Cytochromes by Fe2+ and the Preliminary Characterization of Rusticyanin, a Novel 'Blue' Copper Protein
      Cobley, J.G.,Haddock, B.A.
      (1975) FEBS Lett. 60: 29

    Organizational Affiliation

    Section of Biochemistry, Cell & Molecular Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA.


Find similar proteins by: Sequence  |  Structure

Entity ID: 1
MoleculeChainsSequence LengthOrganismDetails
151Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidansMutation(s): 0 
Gene Names: rus (rusTA)
Find proteins for P0C918 (Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans)
Go to UniProtKB:  P0C918
Small Molecules
Ligands 1 Unique
IDChainsName / Formula / InChI Key2D Diagram3D Interactions
Query on CU

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 Ligand Interaction
Experimental Data & Validation

Experimental Data

  • Resolution: 1.9 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.252 
  • R-Value Work: 0.175 
  • Space Group: P 1 21 1
Unit Cell:
Length (Å)Angle (°)
a = 32.510α = 90.00
b = 60.670β = 108.42
c = 38.140γ = 90.00
Software Package:
Software NamePurpose
SDMSdata scaling
SDMSdata reduction
X-PLORmodel building

Structure Validation

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Entry History 

Deposition Data

Revision History 

  • Version 1.0: 1997-05-15
    Type: Initial release
  • Version 1.1: 2008-03-24
    Type: Version format compliance
  • Version 1.2: 2011-07-13
    Type: Version format compliance