Structural Basis of Synercid (Quinupristin-Dalfopristin) Resistance in Gram-positive Bacterial PathogensKehoe, L.E., Snidwongse, J., Courvalin, P., Rafferty, J.B., Murray, I.A.
(2003) J.Biol.Chem. 278: 29963-29970
- PubMed: 12771141
- DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M303766200
- Primary Citation of Related Structures:  1MR9, 1MRL
- PubMed Abstract:
Synercid, a new semisynthetic streptogramin-derived antibiotic containing dalfopristin and quinupristin, is used in treatment of life-threatening infections caused by glycopeptide-resistant Enterococcus faecium and other bacterial pathogens. However, ...
Synercid, a new semisynthetic streptogramin-derived antibiotic containing dalfopristin and quinupristin, is used in treatment of life-threatening infections caused by glycopeptide-resistant Enterococcus faecium and other bacterial pathogens. However, dissemination of genes encoding virginiamycin acetyltransferases, enzymes that confer resistance to streptogramins, threatens to limit the medical utility of the quinupristin-dalfopristin combination. Here we present structures of virginiamycin acetyltransferase D (VatD) determined at 1.8 A resolution in the absence of ligands, at 2.8 A resolution bound to dalfopristin, and at 3.0 A resolution in the presence of acetyl-coenzyme A. Dalfopristin is bound by VatD in a similar conformation to that described previously for the streptogramin virginiamycin M1. However, specific interactions with the substrate are altered as a consequence of a conformational change in the pyrollidine ring that is propagated to adjacent constituents of the dalfopristin macrocycle. Inactivation of dalfopristin involves acetyl transfer from acetyl-coenzyme A to the sole (O-18) hydroxy group of the antibiotic that lies close to the side chain of the strictly conserved residue, His-82. Replacement of residue 82 by alanine is accompanied by a fall in specific activity of >105-fold, indicating that the imidazole moiety of His-82 is a major determinant of catalytic rate enhancement by VatD. The structure of the VatD-dalfopristin complex can be used to predict positions where further structural modification of the drug might preclude enzyme binding and thereby circumvent Synercid resistance.
Krebs Institute for Biomolecular Sciences, Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, University of Sheffield, Western Bank, Sheffield S10 2TN, United Kingdom.