The effect of cytosine methylation on the structure and geometry of the Holliday junction: the structure of d(CCGGTACm5CGG) at 1.5 A resolution.Vargason, J.M., Ho, P.S.
(2002) J.Biol.Chem. 277: 21041-21049
- PubMed: 11919197
- DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M201357200
- PubMed Abstract:
The single crystal structure of the methylated sequence d(CCGGTACm(5)CGG) has been solved as an antiparallel stacked X Holliday junction to 1.5 A resolution. When compared with the parent nonmethylated d(CCGGTACCGG) structure, the duplexes are transl ...
The single crystal structure of the methylated sequence d(CCGGTACm(5)CGG) has been solved as an antiparallel stacked X Holliday junction to 1.5 A resolution. When compared with the parent nonmethylated d(CCGGTACCGG) structure, the duplexes are translated by 3.4 A along the helix axis and rotated by 10.8 degrees relative to each other, rendering the major grooves more accessible overall. A Ca(2+) complex is seen in the minor groove opposite the junction but is related to the B conformation of the stacked arms. At the junction itself, the hydrogen bond from the N4 nitrogen of cytosine C8 to the C7 phosphate at the crossover in the parent structure has been replaced by a water bridge. Thus, this direct interaction is not absolutely required to stabilize the junction at the previously defined ACC trinucleotide core. The more compact methylated junction forces the Na(+) of the protected central cavity of the nonmethylated junction into a solvent cluster that spans the space between the junction crossover and the stacked arms. A series of void volumes within the methylated and the nonmethylated structures suggests that small monovalent cations can fill and vacate this central cavity without the need to unfold the four-stranded Holliday junction completely.
Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97331, USA.