Crystal structure of the M intermediate of bacteriorhodopsin: allosteric structural changes mediated by sliding movement of a transmembrane helixTakeda, K., Matsui, Y., Kamiya, N., Adachi, S., Okumura, H., Kouyama, T.
(2004) J.Mol.Biol. 341: 1023-1037
- PubMed: 15328615
- Primary Citation of Related Structures:  1DZE
- PubMed Abstract:
- Crystal Structure of the L Intermediate of Bacteriorhodopsin: Evidence for Vertical Translocation of a Water Molecule during the Proton Pumping Cycle
Kouyama, T.,Nishikawa, T.,Tokuhisa, T.,Okumura, H.
(2004) J.Mol.Biol. 335: 531
Structural changes in the proton pumping cycle of wild-type bacteriorhodopsin were investigated by using a 3D crystal (space group P622)prepared by the membrane fusion method. Protein-protein contacts in the crystal elongate the lifetime of the M int ...
Structural changes in the proton pumping cycle of wild-type bacteriorhodopsin were investigated by using a 3D crystal (space group P622)prepared by the membrane fusion method. Protein-protein contacts in the crystal elongate the lifetime of the M intermediate by a factor of approximately 100,allowing high levels of the M intermediate to accumulate under continuous illumination. When the M intermediate generated at room temperature was exposed to a low flux of X-rays (approximately 10(14) photons/mm2), this yellow intermediate was converted into a blue species having an absorption maximum at 650 nm. This color change is suggested to accompany a configuration change in the retinal-Lys216 chain. The true conformational change associated with formation of the M intermediate was analyzed by taking the X-radiation-induced structural change into account. Our result indicates that, upon formation of the M intermediate, helix G move stowards the extra-cellular side by, on average, 0.5 angstroms. This movement is coupled with several reactions occurring at distal sites in the protein: (1) reorientation of the side-chain of Leu93 contacting the C13 methyl group of retinal, which is accompanied by detachment of a water molecule from the Schiff base; (2) a significant distortion in the F-G loop, triggering destruction of a hydrogen bonding interaction between a pair of glutamate groups (Glu194 and Glu204); (3) formation of a salt bridge between the carboxylate group of Glu204 and the guanidinium ion of Arg82, which is accompanied by a large distortion in the extra-cellular half of helix C; (4)noticeable movements of the AB loop and the cytoplasmic end of helix B. But, no appreciable change is induced in the peptide backbone of helices A,D, E and F. These structural changes are discussed from the viewpoint of translocation of water molecules.
Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Japan.