Phosphorylation mutants elucidate the mechanism of annexin IV-mediated membrane aggregation.Kaetzel, M.A., Mo, Y.D., Mealy, T.R., Campos, B., Bergsma-Schutter, W., Brisson, A., Dedman, J.R., Seaton, B.A.
(2001) Biochemistry 40: 4192-4199
- PubMed: 11300800
- PubMed Abstract:
Site-directed mutagenesis, electron microscopy, and X-ray crystallography were used to probe the structural basis of annexin IV-induced membrane aggregation and the inhibition of this property by protein kinase C phosphorylation. Site-directed mutant ...
Site-directed mutagenesis, electron microscopy, and X-ray crystallography were used to probe the structural basis of annexin IV-induced membrane aggregation and the inhibition of this property by protein kinase C phosphorylation. Site-directed mutants that either mimic (Thr6Asp, T6D) or prevent (Thr6Ala, T6A) phosphorylation of threonine 6 were produced for these studies and compared with wild-type annexin IV. In vitro assays showed that unmodified wild-type annexin IV and the T6A mutant, but not PKC-phosphorylated wild-type or the T6D mutant, promote vesicle aggregation. Electron crystallographic data of wild-type and T6D annexin IV revealed that, similar to annexin V, the annexin IV proteins form 2D trimer-based ordered arrays on phospholipid monolayers. Cryo-electron microscopic images of junctions formed between lipid vesicles in the presence of wild-type annexin IV indicated a separation distance corresponding to the thickness of two layers of membrane-bound annexin IV. In this orientation, a single layer of WT annexin IV, attached to the outer leaflet of one vesicle, would undergo face-to-face self-association with the annexin layer of a second vesicle. The 2.0-A resolution crystal structure of the T6D mutant showed that the mutation causes release of the N-terminal tail from the protein core. This change would preclude the face-to-face annexin self-association required to aggregate vesicles. The data suggest that reversible complex formation through phosphorylation and dephosphorylation could occur in vivo and play a role in the regulation of vesicle trafficking following changes in physiological states.
Departments of Molecular and Cellular Physiology and of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Cincinnati, College of Medicine, Ohio 45220, USA.