1GRB

SUBSTRATE BINDING AND CATALYSIS BY GLUTATHIONE REDUCTASE AS DERIVED FROM REFINED ENZYME: SUBSTRATE CRYSTAL STRUCTURES AT 2 ANGSTROMS RESOLUTION


Experimental Data Snapshot

  • Method: X-RAY DIFFRACTION
  • Resolution: 1.85 Å

wwPDB Validation 3D Report Full Report


This is version 1.2 of the entry. See complete history

Literature

Substrate binding and catalysis by glutathione reductase as derived from refined enzyme: substrate crystal structures at 2 A resolution.

Karplus, P.A.Schulz, G.E.

(1989) J.Mol.Biol. 210: 163-180

  • Primary Citation of Related Structures:  1GRA, 1GRE, 1GRF, 1GRG

  • PubMed Abstract: 
  • The X-ray structure analyses of four glutathione reductase complexes and derivatives have been extended to 2 A resolution and refined. The results are discussed in conjunction with the structure of the oxidized native enzyme known at 1.54 A resolutio ...

    The X-ray structure analyses of four glutathione reductase complexes and derivatives have been extended to 2 A resolution and refined. The results are discussed in conjunction with the structure of the oxidized native enzyme known at 1.54 A resolution. While the residual co-ordinate errors are around 0.2 A, some significant shifts even in this range could be established. Points of particular interest are the 3.2 A approach of C4N of nicotinamide to N5F of flavin in hydride transfer geometry, the hydrogen bond geometries of the 2'-phosphate of NADPH as compared to inferior geometries for an inorganic phosphate binding together with NADH, the differential mobilities of parts of the substrates as derived from refined atomic temperature factors, and the stabilization of the thiolate of the proximal Cys63 by conformational changes of neighboring residues as well as by flavin. In addition, catalytically competent His467' is seen to interact more optimally with the sulfur of glutathione-I than with the distal sulfur of Cys58. The observed participation of water molecules for both NADPH and glutathione binding is so extensive that a prediction of the binding mode merely from the polypeptide structure would be very difficult. The accurately known geometries allowed us to draw some conclusions on the enzyme mechanism and suggest a possible scenario of the catalysis.


    Related Citations: 
    • The C-Terminal Fragment of Human Glutathione Reductase Contains the Postulated Catalytic Histidine
      Untucht-Grau, R.,Schulz, G.E.,Schirmer, R.H.
      (1979) FEBS Lett. 105: 244
    • Fad-Binding Site of Glutathione Reductase
      Schulz, G.E.,Schirmer, R.H.,Pai, E.F.
      (1982) J.Mol.Biol. 160: 287
    • Refined Structure of Glutathione Reductase at 1.54 Angstroms Resolution
      Karplus, P.A.,Schulz, G.E.
      (1987) J.Mol.Biol. 195: 701
    • Glutathione Reductase from Human Erythrocytes. The Sequences of the Nadph Domain and of the Interface Domain
      Krauth-Siegel, R.L.,Blatterspiel, R.,Saleh, M.,Schiltz, E.,Schirmer, R.H.,Untucht-Grau, R.
      (1982) Eur.J.Biochem. 121: 259
    • Interaction of a Glutathione S-Conjugate with Glutathione Reductase. Kinetic and X-Ray Crystallographic Studies
      Bilzer, M.,Krauth-Siegel, R.L.,Schirmer, R.H.,Akerboom, T.P.M.,Sies, H.,Schulz, G.E.
      (1984) Eur.J.Biochem. 138: 373
    • The Structure of the Flavoenzyme Glutathione Reductase
      Schulz, G.E.,Schirmer, R.H.,Sachsenheimer, W.,Pai, E.F.
      (1978) Nature 273: 120
    • Comparison of the Three-Dimensional Protein and Nucleotide Structure of the Fad-Binding Domain of P-Hydroxybenzoate Hydroxylase with the Fad-as Well as Nadph-Binding Domains of Glutathione Reductase
      Wierenga, R.K.,Drenth, J.,Schulz, G.E.
      (1983) J.Mol.Biol. 167: 725
    • Inhibition of Human Glutathione Reductase by the Nitrosourea Drugs 1,3-Bis(2-Chloroethyl)-1-Nitrosourea and 1-(2-Chloroethyl)-3-(2-Hydroxyethyl)-1-Nitrosourea
      Karplus, P.A.,Krauth-Siegel, R.L.,Schirmer, R.H.,Schulz, G.E.
      (1988) Eur.J.Biochem. 171: 193
    • Low Resolution Structure of Human Erythrocyte Glutathione Reductase
      Zappe, H.A.,Krohne-Ehrich, G.,Schulz, G.E.
      (1977) J.Mol.Biol. 113: 141
    • Three-Dimensional Structure of Glutathione Reductase at 2 Angstroms Resolution
      Thieme, R.,Pai, E.F.,Schirmer, R.H.,Schulz, G.E.
      (1981) J.Mol.Biol. 152: 763
    • The Catalytic Mechanism of Glutathione Reductase as Derived from X-Ray Diffraction Analyses of Reaction Intermediates
      Pai, E.F.,Schulz, G.E.
      (1983) J.Biol.Chem. 258: 1752
    • Crystals of Human Erythrocyte Glutathione Reductase
      Schulz, G.E.,Zappe, H.,Worthington, D.J.,Rosemeyer, M.A.
      (1975) FEBS Lett. 54: 86
    • Gene Duplication in Glutathione Reductase
      Schulz, G.E.
      (1980) J.Mol.Biol. 138: 335


    Organizational Affiliation

    Institut für Organische Chemie und Biochemie, Universität, Freiburg, F.R.G.




Macromolecules

Find similar proteins by: Sequence  |  Structure

Entity ID: 1
MoleculeChainsSequence LengthOrganismDetails
GLUTATHIONE REDUCTASE
A
478Homo sapiensGene Names: GSR (GLUR, GRD1)
EC: 1.8.1.7
Find proteins for P00390 (Homo sapiens)
Go to Gene View: GSR
Go to UniProtKB:  P00390
Small Molecules
Ligands 4 Unique
IDChainsName / Formula / InChI Key2D Diagram3D Interactions
PO4
Query on PO4

Download SDF File 
Download CCD File 
A
PHOSPHATE ION
O4 P
NBIIXXVUZAFLBC-UHFFFAOYSA-K
 Ligand Interaction
FAD
Query on FAD

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Download CCD File 
A
FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE
C27 H33 N9 O15 P2
VWWQXMAJTJZDQX-UYBVJOGSSA-N
 Ligand Interaction
NAD
Query on NAD

Download SDF File 
Download CCD File 
A
NICOTINAMIDE-ADENINE-DINUCLEOTIDE
C21 H27 N7 O14 P2
BAWFJGJZGIEFAR-NNYOXOHSSA-N
 Ligand Interaction
NDP
Query on NDP

Download SDF File 
Download CCD File 
A
NADPH DIHYDRO-NICOTINAMIDE-ADENINE-DINUCLEOTIDE PHOSPHATE
C21 H30 N7 O17 P3
ACFIXJIJDZMPPO-NNYOXOHSSA-N
 Ligand Interaction
Experimental Data & Validation

Experimental Data

  • Method: X-RAY DIFFRACTION
  • Resolution: 1.85 Å
  • Space Group: B 1 1 2
Unit Cell:
Length (Å)Angle (°)
a = 119.800α = 90.00
b = 84.500β = 90.00
c = 63.200γ = 58.70
Software Package:
Software NamePurpose
TNTrefinement

Structure Validation

View Full Validation Report or Ramachandran Plots



Entry History 

Deposition Data

Revision History 

  • Version 1.0: 1994-01-31
    Type: Initial release
  • Version 1.1: 2008-03-24
    Type: Version format compliance
  • Version 1.2: 2011-07-13
    Type: Derived calculations, Version format compliance