The Structure of the D49 Phospholipase A2 Piratoxin III from Bothrops Pirajai Reveals Unprecedented Structural Displacement of the Calcium-Binding Loop: Possible Relationship to Cooperative Substrate BindingRigden, D.J., Hwa, L., Marangoni, S., Toyama, M., Polikarpov, I.
(2003) Acta Crystallogr.,Sect.D 59: 255
- PubMed: 12554936
- PubMed Abstract:
Snake venoms are rich sources of phospholipase A(2) homologues, both active calcium-binding Asp49 enzymes and essentially inactive Lys49 proteins. They are responsible for multiple pharmacological effects, some of which are dependent on catalytic act ...
Snake venoms are rich sources of phospholipase A(2) homologues, both active calcium-binding Asp49 enzymes and essentially inactive Lys49 proteins. They are responsible for multiple pharmacological effects, some of which are dependent on catalytic activity and others of which are not. Here, the 2.4 A X-ray crystal structure of an active Asp49 phospholipase A(2) from the venom of the snake Bothrops pirajai, refined to conventional and free R values of 20.1 and 25.5%, respectively, is reported. Unusually for phospholipases A(2), the dependence of the enzyme rate on the substrate concentration is sigmoidal, implying cooperativity of substrate binding. The unprecedented structural distortion seen for the calcium-binding loop in the present structure may therefore be indicative of a T-state enzyme. An explanation of the interaction between the substrate-binding sites based on the canonical phospholipase A(2) dimer is difficult. However, an alternative putative dimer interface identified in the crystal lattice brings together the calcium-binding loops of neighbouring molecules, along with the C-terminal regions which are disulfide bonded to those loops, thereby offering a possible route of communication between active sites.
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