Human cystatin C, an amyloidogenic protein, dimerizes through three-dimensional domain swapping.Janowski, R., Kozak, M., Jankowska, E., Grzonka, Z., Grubb, A., Abrahamson, M., Jaskolski, M.
(2001) Nat Struct Biol 8: 316-320
- PubMed: 11276250
- DOI: 10.1038/86188
- Primary Citation of Related Structures:
- PubMed Abstract:
- Expression of selenomethionyl derivative and preliminary crystallographic studies of human cystatin C
Kozak, M., Jankowska, E., Janowski, R., Grzonka, Z., Grubb, A., Alvarez Fernandez, M., Abrahamson, M., Jaskolski, M.
(1999) Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr 55: 1939
- The 2.0 angstrom X-ray crystal structure of chicken egg white cystatin and its possible mode of interaction with cysteine proteases
Bode, W., Engh, R., Musil, D., Thiele, U., Huber, R., Karshikov, A., Brzin, J., Kos, J., Turk, V.
(1988) EMBO J 7: 2593
- NMR structural studies of human cystatin C dimers and monomers
Ekiel, I., Abrahamson, M., Fulton, D.B., Lindahl, P., Storer, A.C., Levadoux, W., Lafrance, M., Labelle, S., Pomerleau, Y., Groleau, D., LeSauter, L., Gehring, K.
(1997) J Mol Biol 271: 266
The crystal structure of human cystatin C, a protein with amyloidogenic properties and a potent inhibitor of cysteine proteases, reveals how the protein refolds to produce very tight two-fold symmetric dimers while retaining the secondary structure o ...
The crystal structure of human cystatin C, a protein with amyloidogenic properties and a potent inhibitor of cysteine proteases, reveals how the protein refolds to produce very tight two-fold symmetric dimers while retaining the secondary structure of the monomeric form. The dimerization occurs through three-dimensional domain swapping, a mechanism for forming oligomeric proteins. The reconstituted monomer-like domains are similar to chicken cystatin except for one inhibitory loop that unfolds to form the 'open interface' of the dimer. The structure explains the tendency of human cystatin C to dimerize and suggests a mechanism for its aggregation in the brain arteries of elderly people with amyloid angiopathy. A more severe 'conformational disease' is associated with the L68Q mutant of human cystatin C, which causes massive amyloidosis, cerebral hemorrhage and death in young adults. The structure of the three-dimensional domain-swapped dimers shows how the L68Q mutation destabilizes the monomers and makes the partially unfolded intermediate less unstable. Higher aggregates may arise through the three-dimensional domain-swapping mechanism occurring in an open-ended fashion in which partially unfolded molecules are linked into infinite chains.
Department of Crystallography, Faculty of Chemistry, A. Mickiewicz University, Grunwaldzka 6, 60-780 Poznan, Poland.