Human cystatin C, an amyloidogenic protein, dimerizes through three-dimensional domain swapping.Janowski, R., Kozak, M., Jankowska, E., Grzonka, Z., Grubb, A., Abrahamson, M., Jaskolski, M.
(2001) Nat.Struct.Mol.Biol. 8: 316-320
- PubMed: 11276250
- DOI: 10.1038/86188
- PubMed Abstract:
- Expression of selenomethionyl derivative and preliminary crystallographic studies of human cystatin C
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(1999) Acta Crystallogr.,Sect.D 55: 1939
- The 2.0 angstrom X-ray crystal structure of chicken egg white cystatin and its possible mode of interaction with cysteine proteases
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- NMR structural studies of human cystatin C dimers and monomers
Ekiel, I.,Abrahamson, M.,Fulton, D.B.,Lindahl, P.,Storer, A.C.,Levadoux, W.,Lafrance, M.,Labelle, S.,Pomerleau, Y.,Groleau, D.,LeSauter, L.,Gehring, K.
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The crystal structure of human cystatin C, a protein with amyloidogenic properties and a potent inhibitor of cysteine proteases, reveals how the protein refolds to produce very tight two-fold symmetric dimers while retaining the secondary structure o ...
The crystal structure of human cystatin C, a protein with amyloidogenic properties and a potent inhibitor of cysteine proteases, reveals how the protein refolds to produce very tight two-fold symmetric dimers while retaining the secondary structure of the monomeric form. The dimerization occurs through three-dimensional domain swapping, a mechanism for forming oligomeric proteins. The reconstituted monomer-like domains are similar to chicken cystatin except for one inhibitory loop that unfolds to form the 'open interface' of the dimer. The structure explains the tendency of human cystatin C to dimerize and suggests a mechanism for its aggregation in the brain arteries of elderly people with amyloid angiopathy. A more severe 'conformational disease' is associated with the L68Q mutant of human cystatin C, which causes massive amyloidosis, cerebral hemorrhage and death in young adults. The structure of the three-dimensional domain-swapped dimers shows how the L68Q mutation destabilizes the monomers and makes the partially unfolded intermediate less unstable. Higher aggregates may arise through the three-dimensional domain-swapping mechanism occurring in an open-ended fashion in which partially unfolded molecules are linked into infinite chains.
Department of Crystallography, Faculty of Chemistry, A. Mickiewicz University, Grunwaldzka 6, 60-780 Poznan, Poland.