The functional implications of the dimerization of the catalytic subunits of the mammalian brain platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase (Ib).McMullen, T.W., Li, J., Sheffield, P.J., Aoki, J., Martin, T.W., Arai, H., Inoue, K., Derewenda, Z.S.
(2000) Protein Eng. 13: 865-871
- PubMed: 11239086
- PubMed Abstract:
- Brain Acetylhydrolase that Inactivates Platelet-activating Factor is a G-protein-like trimer
Ho, Y.S.,Swenson, L.,Derewenda, U.,Serre, L.,Wei, Y.,Dauter, Z.,Hattori, M.,Adachi, T.,Aoki, J.,Arai, H.,Inoue, K.,Derewenda, Z.S.
(1997) Nature 385: 89
The mammalian brain contains significant amounts of the cytosolic isoform Ib of the platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH), a unique type of PLA2. This oligomeric protein complex contains three types of subunits: two homologous (63% iden ...
The mammalian brain contains significant amounts of the cytosolic isoform Ib of the platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH), a unique type of PLA2. This oligomeric protein complex contains three types of subunits: two homologous (63% identity) 26 kDa catalytic subunits (alpha(1) and alpha(2)) which harbor all the PAF-AH activity, and the 45 kDa beta-subunit (LIS1), a product of the causal gene for Miller-Dieker lissencephaly. During fetal development, the preferentially expressed alpha(1)-subunit forms a homodimer, which binds to a homodimer of LIS1, whereas in adult organisms alpha(1)/alpha(2) and alpha(2)/alpha(2) dimers, also bound to dimeric LIS1, are the prevailing species. The consequences of this "switching" are not understood, but appear to be of physiological significance. The alpha(1)- and alpha(2)-subunits readily associate with very high affinity to form homodimers. The nature of the interface has been elucidated by the 1.7 A resolution crystal structure of the alpha(1)/alpha(1) homodimer (Ho et al., 1997). Here, we examined the functional consequences of the dimerization in both types of alpha-subunits. We obtained monomeric protein in the presence of high concentrations (>50 mM) of Ca2+ ions, and we show that it is catalytically inactive and less stable than the wild type. We further show that Arg29 and Arg22 in one monomer contribute to the catalytic competence of the active site across the dimer interface, and complement the catalytic triad of Ser47, Asp192 and His195, in the second monomer. These results indicate that the brain PAF-acetylhydrolase is a unique PLA2 in which dimerization is essential for both stability and catalytic activity.
Department of Molecular Physiology and Biological Physics, University of Virginia, Health Sciences Center, Charlottesville, VA 22906-0011, USA.