1BWC

STRUCTURE OF HUMAN GLUTATHIONE REDUCTASE COMPLEXED with AJOENE INHIBITOR AND SUBVERSIVE SUBSTRATE


Experimental Data Snapshot

  • Method: X-RAY DIFFRACTION
  • Resolution: 2.10 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.230 
  • R-Value Work: 0.180 
  • R-Value Observed: 0.180 

wwPDB Validation   3D Report Full Report


This is version 1.2 of the entry. See complete history


Literature

Ajoene is an inhibitor and subversive substrate of human glutathione reductase and Trypanosoma cruzi trypanothione reductase: crystallographic, kinetic, and spectroscopic studies.

Gallwitz, H.Bonse, S.Martinez-Cruz, A.Schlichting, I.Schumacher, K.Krauth-Siegel, R.L.

(1999) J Med Chem 42: 364-372

  • DOI: 10.1021/jm980471k
  • Primary Citation of Related Structures:  
    1BWC

  • PubMed Abstract: 
  • Ajoene ((E,Z)-4,5,9-trithiadodeca-1,6,11-triene 9-oxide), a garlic-derived natural compound, is a covalent inhibitor as well as a substrate of human glutathione reductase (GR) and Trypanosoma cruzi trypanothione reductase (TR). The 2.1-A resolution c ...

    Ajoene ((E,Z)-4,5,9-trithiadodeca-1,6,11-triene 9-oxide), a garlic-derived natural compound, is a covalent inhibitor as well as a substrate of human glutathione reductase (GR) and Trypanosoma cruzi trypanothione reductase (TR). The 2.1-A resolution crystal structure of GR inhibited by (E)-ajoene revealed a mixed disulfide between the active site Cys58 and the CH2=CH-CH2-SO-CH2-CH=CH-S moiety of ajoene. The modified enzyme has a markedly increased oxidase activity when compared to free GR. GR reduces (Z)-ajoene with a kcat/Km of 6.8 x 10(3) M-1 s-1 yielding 4,5,9-trithiadodeca-1, 6,11-triene (deoxyajoene) and 4,8,9,13-tetrathiahexadeca-1,6,10, 15-tetraene as stable reaction products. The reaction leads also to the formation of single-electron reduced products and concomitantly superoxide anion radicals as shown by coupling the reaction to the reduction of cytochrome c. The interactions between the flavoenzymes and ajoene are expected to increase the oxidative stress of the respective cell. The antiparasitic and cytostatic actions of ajoene may at least in part be due to the multiple effects on key enzymes of the antioxidant thiol metabolism.


    Related Citations: 
    • Inhibition of Human Glutathione Reductase by the Nitrosourea Drugs 1,3-Bis(2- Chloroethyl)-1-Nitrosourea and 1-(2-Chloroethyl)-3-(2-Hydroxyethyl)-1- Nitrosourea. A Crystallographic Analysis
      Karplus, P.A., Krauth-Siegel, R.L., Schirmer, R.H., Schulz, G.E.
      (1988) Eur J Biochem 171: 193
    • Refined Structure of Glutathione Reductase at 1.54 A Resolution
      Karplus, P.A., Schulz, G.E.
      (1987) J Mol Biol 195: 701

    Organizational Affiliation

    Biochemie-Zentrum, Heidelberg University, Im Neuenheimer Feld 328, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.



Macromolecules
Find similar proteins by:  (by identity cutoff)  |  Structure
Entity ID: 1
MoleculeChainsSequence LengthOrganismDetailsImage
PROTEIN (GLUTATHIONE REDUCTASE)A478Homo sapiensMutation(s): 0 
Gene Names: GORGSRGLURGRD1
EC: 1.6.4.2 (PDB Primary Data), 1.8.1.7 (UniProt)
Find proteins for P00390 (Homo sapiens)
Explore P00390 
Go to UniProtKB:  P00390
NIH Common Fund Data Resources
PHAROS  P00390
Protein Feature View
Expand
  • Reference Sequence
Small Molecules
Ligands 3 Unique
IDChainsName / Formula / InChI Key2D Diagram3D Interactions
FAD
Query on FAD

Download CCD File 
A
FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE
C27 H33 N9 O15 P2
VWWQXMAJTJZDQX-UYBVJOGSSA-N
 Ligand Interaction
AJ3
Query on AJ3

Download CCD File 
A
3-(PROP-2-ENE-1-SULFINYL)-PROPENE-1-THIOL
C6 H10 O S2
HSVQDVSVQIMRSS-CDAZIORVSA-N
 Ligand Interaction
CL
Query on CL

Download CCD File 
A
CHLORIDE ION
Cl
VEXZGXHMUGYJMC-UHFFFAOYSA-M
 Ligand Interaction
Experimental Data & Validation

Experimental Data

  • Method: X-RAY DIFFRACTION
  • Resolution: 2.10 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.230 
  • R-Value Work: 0.180 
  • R-Value Observed: 0.180 
  • Space Group: C 2 2 21
Unit Cell:
Length ( Å )Angle ( ˚ )
a = 64.3α = 90
b = 146.9β = 90
c = 128.8γ = 90
Software Package:
Software NamePurpose
XDSdata scaling
AMoREphasing
X-PLORrefinement
XDSdata reduction

Structure Validation

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Entry History 

Deposition Data

Revision History 

  • Version 1.0: 1999-07-20
    Type: Initial release
  • Version 1.1: 2008-04-26
    Changes: Version format compliance
  • Version 1.2: 2011-07-13
    Changes: Derived calculations, Version format compliance