Three-dimensional structure of a gamma-carboxyglutamic acid-containing conotoxin, conantokin G, from the marine snail Conus geographus: the metal-free conformer.Rigby, A.C., Baleja, J.D., Furie, B.C., Furie, B.
(1997) Biochemistry 36: 6906-6914
- PubMed: 9188685
- DOI: 10.1021/bi970321w
- PubMed Abstract:
Conantokin G is a gamma-carboxyglutamic acid-containing conotoxin from the venom of the marine cone snail Conus geographus. The 17-residue peptide, which contains five gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla) residues and an amidated C-terminal asparagine am ...
Conantokin G is a gamma-carboxyglutamic acid-containing conotoxin from the venom of the marine cone snail Conus geographus. The 17-residue peptide, which contains five gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla) residues and an amidated C-terminal asparagine amide, was synthesized chemically in a form identical to the natural conantokin G. To gain insight into the role of gamma-carboxyglutamic acid in the structure of this peptide, we determined the three-dimensional structure of conantokin G by 1H NMR and compared its structure to other conotoxins and to the gamma-carboxyglutamic acid-containing regions of the vitamin K-dependent blood-clotting proteins. Complete resonance assignments were made by two-dimensional 1H NMR spectroscopy in the absence of metal ions. NOE cross-peaks d(alphaN), d(NN), and d(betaN) provided interproton distance information, and vicinal spin-spin coupling constants 3J(HN alpha) were used to calculate phi torsion angles. Distance geometry and simulated annealing methods were used to derive 20 convergent structures from a set of 227 interproton distance restraints and 13 torsion angle measurements. The backbone rmsd to the geometric average for 20 final structures is 0.8 +/- 0.1 A. Conantokin G consists of a structured region commencing at Gla 3 and extending through arginine 13. This structure includes a partial loop centered around Gla 3 and Gla 4, a distorted type I turn between glutamine 6 and glutamine 9, and two type I turns involving Gla 10, leucine 11, and isoleucine 12 and arginine 13. Together, these two turns define approximately 1.6 turns of a distorted 3(10) helix. The observed structure possesses structural elements similar to those seen in the disulfide-linked conotoxins.
New England Medical Center, and Department of Medicine, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02111, USA.