Catalytic domain structure of vampire bat plasminogen activator: a molecular paradigm for proteolysis without activation cleavage.Renatus, M., Stubbs, M.T., Huber, R., Bringmann, P., Donner, P., Schleuning, W.D., Bode, W.
(1997) Biochemistry 36: 13483-13493
- PubMed: 9354616
- DOI: 10.1021/bi971129x
- PubMed Abstract:
- Lysine 156 Promotes the Anomalous Proenzyme Activity of Tpa: X-Ray Crystal Structure of Single-Chain Human Tpa
Renatus, M.,Engh, R.A.,Stubbs, M.T.,Huber, R.,Fischer, S.,Kohnert, U.,Bode, W.
(1997) Embo J. 16: 4797
- Tissue-Type Plasminogen Activator: Variants and Crystal/Solution Structures Demarcate Structural Determinants of Function
Bode, W.,Renatus, M.
(1997) Curr.Opin.Struct.Biol. 7: 865
- The 2.3 A Crystal Structure of the Catalytic Domain of Recombinant Two-Chain Human Tissue-Type Plasminogen Activator
Lamba, D.,Bauer, M.,Huber, R.,Fischer, S.,Rudolph, R.,Kohnert, U.,Bode, W.
(1996) J.Mol.Biol. 258: 117
The saliva of the blood-eating vampire bat Desmodus rotundus contains plasminogen activators (PAs) that maintain the fluidity of the prey's blood by activating plasminogen and dissolving developing fibrin clots. D. rotundus salivary PAs (DSPAs) are c ...
The saliva of the blood-eating vampire bat Desmodus rotundus contains plasminogen activators (PAs) that maintain the fluidity of the prey's blood by activating plasminogen and dissolving developing fibrin clots. D. rotundus salivary PAs (DSPAs) are composed of evolutionarily conserved domains reminiscent of human tissue-type PA (tPA), but their catalytic domain lacks a plasmin-sensitive "activation cleavage site". Despite this, all DSPAs are intrinsically active and enormously stimulated in the presence of fibrin. The recombinant catalytic domain of DSPAalpha1 has been crystallized in a covalent complex with Glu-Gly-Arg-chloromethyl ketone and its structure solved at 2.9 A resolution. The structure is similar to that of activated two-chain human tPA. Despite its single-chain status, the activation domain is observed in an enzymatically active conformation, with a functional substrate binding site and active site accommodating the peptidylmethylene inhibitor. The activation pocket, which normally receives the N-terminal Ile16, is occupied by the side chain of Lys156, whose distal ammonium group makes an internal salt bridge with the carboxylate group of Asp194. Lys156 is in a groove shielded from the bulk solvent by the intact "activation loop" (Gln10-Phe21), favoring Lys156-Asp194 salt bridge formation and stabilization of a functional substrate binding site. Together with the characteristic 186 insertion loop, the activation loop could act as a switch, effecting full single-chain enzymatic activity upon binding to fibrin.
Department of Structural Research, Max-Planck-Institute of Biochemistry, Martinsried, Germany. firstname.lastname@example.org