1A3B

COMPLEX OF HUMAN ALPHA-THROMBIN WITH THE BIFUNCTIONAL BORONATE INHIBITOR BOROLOG1


Experimental Data Snapshot

  • Method: X-RAY DIFFRACTION
  • Resolution: 1.8 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.230 
  • R-Value Work: 0.170 

wwPDB Validation 3D Report Full Report


This is version 1.2 of the entry. See complete history

Literature

Bifunctional peptide boronate inhibitors of thrombin: crystallographic analysis of inhibition enhanced by linkage to an exosite 1 binding peptide.

Skordalakes, E.Elgendy, S.Goodwin, C.A.Green, D.Scully, M.F.Kakkar, V.V.Freyssinet, J.M.Dodson, G.Deadman, J.J.

(1998) Biochemistry 37: 14420-14427

  • DOI: 10.1021/bi980225a
  • Primary Citation of Related Structures:  

  • PubMed Abstract: 
  • The affinity of the hirudin49-64 segment for exosite 1 of thrombin has been used previously to enhance the potency of simple competitive inhibitors [DiMaio, J., Gibbs, B., Munn, D., Lefebvre, J. , Ni, F., Konishi, Y. (1990) J. Biol. Chem. 265, 21698- ...

    The affinity of the hirudin49-64 segment for exosite 1 of thrombin has been used previously to enhance the potency of simple competitive inhibitors [DiMaio, J., Gibbs, B., Munn, D., Lefebvre, J. , Ni, F., Konishi, Y. (1990) J. Biol. Chem. 265, 21698-21703., and Maraganore, J. M., Bourdon, P., Jablonski, J., Ramachandran, K. L., and Fenton, J. W., II (1990) Biochemistry 29, 7095-7087.]. Using a similar approach, we have enhanced the activity of two active site directed thrombin inhibitors by attaching this segment via a novel reverse oriented linker to each of two tripeptide boronate inhibitors. At P1, compound 1 contains an arginine-like, isothiouronium, side chain, while compound 2 contains an uncharged, bromopropyl residue. Inhibition of human alpha-thrombin by compound 1 shows slow, tight-binding competitive kinetics (final Ki of 2.2 pM, k1 of 3.51 x 10(7) M-1 s-1, and k-1 of 1.81 x 10(-)4 s-1). The addition of hirugen peptide (20 microM) competes for exosite 1 binding and restores the k1 and k-1 to that of the analogous tripeptide, 0.29 x 10(7) M-1 s-1 and 0.13 x 10(-)4 s-1, respectively. Compound 1 has enhanced specificity for thrombin over trypsin with KiTry/KiThr of approximately 900 compared to the analogous tripeptide, with KiTry/KiThr of approximately 4. Compound 2 acts as a competitive inhibitor (KiThr of 0.6 nM) and is highly selective with no effect on trypsin. Crystallographic analysis of complexes of human alpha-thrombin with compound 1 (1.8 A) and compound 2 (1.85 A) shows a covalent bond between the boron of the inhibitor and Ser195 (bond lengths B-O of 1.55 and 1.61 A, respectively). The isothiouronium group of compound 1 forms bidentate interactions with Asp189. The P2 and P3 residues of the inhibitors form interactions with the S2 and S3 sites of thrombin similar to other D-Phe-Pro based inhibitors [Bode, W., Turk, D., and Karshikov, A. (1992) Protein Sci. 1, 426-471.]. The linker exits the active site cleft of thrombin forming no interactions, while the binding of Hir49-64 segment to exosite 1 is similar to that previously described for hirudin [Rydel, T. J., Tulinsky, A., and Bode, W. (1991) J. Mol. Biol. 221, 583-601.]. Because of the similarity of binding at each of these sites to that of the analogous peptides added alone, this approach may be used to improve the inhibitory activity of all types of active site directed thrombin inhibitors and may also be applicable to the design of inhibitors of other proteases.


    Related Citations: 
    • Structure of the Hirugen and Hirulog 1 Complexes of Alpha-Thrombin
      Skrzypczak-Jankun, E.,Carperos, V.E.,Ravichandran, K.G.,Tulinsky, A.,Westbrook, M.,Maraganore, J.M.
      (1991) J.Mol.Biol. 221: 1379
    • Structure of the Hirulog 3-Thrombin Complex and Nature of the S' Subsites of Substrates and Inhibitors
      Qiu, X.,Padmanabhan, K.P.,Carperos, V.E.,Tulinsky, A.,Kline, T.,Maraganore, J.M.,Fenton II, J.W.
      (1992) Biochemistry 31: 11689


    Organizational Affiliation

    Peptide Synthesis Section and Biochemistry Section, Thrombosis Research Institute, London, UK.




Macromolecules

Find similar proteins by: Sequence  |  Structure

Entity ID: 1
MoleculeChainsSequence LengthOrganismDetails
ALPHA-THROMBIN (SMALL SUBUNIT)
L
36Homo sapiensMutation(s): 0 
Gene Names: F2
EC: 3.4.21.5
Find proteins for P00734 (Homo sapiens)
Go to Gene View: F2
Go to UniProtKB:  P00734
Entity ID: 2
MoleculeChainsSequence LengthOrganismDetails
ALPHA-THROMBIN (LARGE SUBUNIT)
H
259Homo sapiensMutation(s): 0 
Gene Names: F2
EC: 3.4.21.5
Find proteins for P00734 (Homo sapiens)
Go to Gene View: F2
Go to UniProtKB:  P00734
Entity ID: 3
MoleculeChainsSequence LengthOrganismDetails
Hirudin
I
18Hirudo medicinalisMutation(s): 0 
Find proteins for P28504 (Hirudo medicinalis)
Go to UniProtKB:  P28504
Small Molecules
Ligands 1 Unique
IDChainsName / Formula / InChI Key2D Diagram3D Interactions
T29
Query on T29

Download SDF File 
Download CCD File 
H
TRI166 (BIFUNCTIONAL BORONATE INHIBITOR)
C22 H34 B N5 O5 S
IRTXHWTZQUYIAV-SQNIBIBYSA-N
 Ligand Interaction
Experimental Data & Validation

Experimental Data

  • Method: X-RAY DIFFRACTION
  • Resolution: 1.8 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.230 
  • R-Value Work: 0.170 
  • Space Group: C 1 2 1
Unit Cell:
Length (Å)Angle (°)
a = 70.150α = 90.00
b = 71.340β = 100.23
c = 71.650γ = 90.00
Software Package:
Software NamePurpose
DENZOdata reduction
AMoREphasing
REFMACrefinement
SCALEPACKdata scaling

Structure Validation

View Full Validation Report or Ramachandran Plots



Entry History 

Deposition Data

Revision History 

  • Version 1.0: 1998-06-03
    Type: Initial release
  • Version 1.1: 2008-03-04
    Type: Version format compliance
  • Version 1.2: 2011-07-13
    Type: Atomic model, Database references, Derived calculations, Non-polymer description, Structure summary, Version format compliance