Chemical Component Summary

Identifiers2-oxidanylidenepropanoic acid
FormulaC3 H4 O3
Molecular Weight88.06
Isomeric SMILESCC(=O)C(O)=O

Chemical Details

Formal Charge0
Atom Count10
Chiral Atom Count0
Chiral Atomsn/a
Bond Count9
Aromatic Bond Count0
Leaving AtomsO2, O3

Drug Info: DrugBank

DrugBank IDDB00119 Different stereochemistry
NamePyruvic acid
  • approved
  • nutraceutical
DescriptionAn intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. In thiamine deficiency, its oxidation is retarded and it accumulates in the tissues, especially in nervous structures. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
  • 2-ketopropionic acid
  • 2-Oxopropanoic acid
  • 2-Oxopropansaeure
  • 2-Oxopropionsaeure
  • a-Ketopropionic acid
Affected OrganismHumans and other mammals
IndicationFor nutritional supplementation, also for treating dietary shortage or imbalance
PharmacologyPyruvic acid or pyruvate is a key intermediate in the glycolytic and pyruvate dehydrogenase pathways, which are involved in biological energy production. Pyruvate is widely found in living organisms. It is not an essential nutrient since it can be synthesized in the cells of the body. Certain fruits and vegetables are rich in pyruvate. For example, an average-size red apple contains approximately 450 milligrams. Dark beer and red wine are also rich sources of pyruvate. Recent research suggests that pyruvate in high concentrations may have a role in cardiovascular therapy, as an inotropic agent. Supplements of this dietary substance may also have bariatric and ergogenic applications.
Mechanism of actionPyruvate serves as a biological fuel by being converted to acetyl coenzyme A, which enters the tricarboxylic acid or Krebs cycle where it is metabolized to produce ATP aerobically. Energy can also be obtained anaerobically from pyruvate via its conversion to lactate. Pyruvate injections or perfusions increase contractile function of hearts when metabolizing glucose or fatty acids. This inotropic effect is striking in hearts stunned by ischemia/reperfusion. The inotropic effect of pyruvate requires intracoronary infusion. Among possible mechanisms for this effect are increased generation of ATP and an increase in ATP phosphorylation potential. Another is activation of pyruvate dehydrogenase, promoting its own oxidation by inhibiting pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase. Pyruvate dehydrogenase is inactivated in ischemia myocardium. Yet another is reduction of cytosolic inorganic phosphate concentration. Pyruvate, as an antioxidant, is known to scavenge such reactive oxygen species as hydrogen peroxide and lipid peroxides. Indirectly, supraphysiological levels of pyruvate may increase cellular reduced glutathione.
  • Carboxylic Acids
  • Dietary Supplements
  • Keto Acids
  • Organic Chemicals
  • Pyruvates
CAS number127-17-3
Drug Info/Drug Targets: DrugBank 3.0: a comprehensive resource for 'omics' research on drugs. Knox C, Law V, Jewison T, Liu P, Ly S, Frolkis A, Pon A, Banco K, Mak C, Neveu V, Djoumbou Y, Eisner R, Guo AC, Wishart DS. Nucleic Acids Res. 2011 Jan; 39 (Database issue):D1035-41. | PMID:21059682