TOR

[(3aS,5aR,8aR,8bS)-2,2,7,7-tetramethyltetrahydro-3aH-bis[1,3]dioxolo[4,5-b:4',5'-d]pyran-3a-yl]methyl sulfamate

TOR as a free ligand exists in 3 entries. Examples include: 3HKU 5JNA 3LXE

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View summary at Ligand Expo



Chemical Component Summary

Name[(3aS,5aR,8aR,8bS)-2,2,7,7-tetramethyltetrahydro-3aH-bis[1,3]dioxolo[4,5-b:4',5'-d]pyran-3a-yl]methyl sulfamate
Identifiersn/a
FormulaC12 H21 N O8 S
Molecular Weight339.36
TypeNON-POLYMER
Isomeric SMILESCC1(C)O[C@@H]2CO[C@@]3(COS(N)(=O)=O)OC(C)(C)O[C@H]3[C@@H]2O1
InChIInChI=1S/C12H21NO8S/c1-10(2)18-7-5-16-12(6-17-22(13,14)15)9(8(7)19-10)20-11(3,4)21-12/h7-9H,5-6H2,1-4H3,(H2,13,14,15)/t7-,8-,9+,12+/m1/s1
InChIKeyKJADKKWYZYXHBB-XBWDGYHZSA-N

Chemical Details

Formal Charge0
Atom Count43
Chiral Atom Count4
Chiral AtomsCAB, CAG, CAK, CAL
Bond Count45
Aromatic Bond Count0
Leaving Atomsn/a

Drug Info: DrugBank

DrugBank IDDB00273 Different stereochemistry
NameTopiramate
Groupsapproved
DescriptionTopiramate (brand name Topamax) is an anticonvulsant drug produced by Ortho-McNeil Neurologics, a division of Johnson & Johnson. It is used to treat epilepsy in both children and adults. In children it is also indicated for treatment of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (a disorder that causes seizures and developmental delays). It is also Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved for, and now most frequently prescribed for, the prevention of migraines. [Wikipedia]. A combination product containing phentermine and topiramate extended-release called QSYMIA® is indicated for the management of obesity. On August 2013, an extended released formulation, marketed as Trokendi XR has been approved for the management of partial onset, tonic-clonic, and Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome seizures.
Synonyms
  • 2,3:4,5-Bis-O-(1-methylethylidene)-beta-D-fructopyranose sulfamate
  • 2,3:4,5-Di-O-isopropylidene-beta-D-fructopyranose sulfamate
  • McN-4853
  • RWJ-17021
  • Tipiramate
Salts
  • Topiramate calcium
  • Topiramate potassium
  • Topiramate sodium
Brand Names
  • Abbott-topiramate
  • Accel-topiramate
  • Act Topiramate
  • Apo-topiramate
  • Auro-topiramate
Affected OrganismHumans and other mammals
IndicationUsed for the treatment and control of partial seizures and severe tonic-clonic (grand mal) seizures and also for the prevention of migraine headaches. In children it is also used for treatment of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. Qsymia® is indicated for the treatment and management of obesity.
PharmacologyTopiramate is an anticonvulsant indicated in the treatment of epilepsy and migraine. Topiramate enhances GABA-activated chloride channels. In addition, topiramate inhibits excitatory neurotransmission, through actions on kainate and AMPA receptors. There is evidence that topiramate has a specific effect on GluR5 kainate receptors. It is also an inhibitor of carbonic anhydrase, particular subtypes II and IV, but this action is weak and unlikely to be related to its anticonvulsant actions, but may account for the bad taste and the development of renal stones seen during treatment. Its possible effect as a mood stabilizer seems to occur before anticonvulsant qualities at lower dosages. Topiramate inhibits maximal electroshock and pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures as well as partial and secundarily generalized tonic-clonic seizures in the kindling model, findings predective of a broad spectrum of antiseizure activities clinically.
Mechanism of actionThe precise mechanism of action of topiramate is not known. However, studies have shown that topiramate blocks the action potentials elicited repetitively by a sustained depolarization of the neurons in a time-dependent manner, suggesting a state-dependent sodium channel blocking action. Topiramate also augments the activity of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyrate (GABA) at some subtypes of the GABA<sub>A</sub> receptor (controls an integral chloride channel), indicating a possible mechanism through potentiation of the activity of GABA. Topiramate also demonstrates antagonism of the AMPA/kainate subtype of the glutamate excitatory amino acid receptor. It also inhibits carbonic anhydrase (particularly isozymes II and IV), but this action is weak and unlikely to be related to its anticonvulsant actions.
Route of administrationOral
Categories
  • Anti-Obesity Agents
  • Anticonvulsants
  • Carbohydrates
  • Central Nervous System Agents
  • Central Nervous System Depressants
ATC-CodeN03AX11
AHFS-Code28:12.92
CAS number97240-79-4
Drug Info/Drug Targets: DrugBank 3.0: a comprehensive resource for 'omics' research on drugs. Knox C, Law V, Jewison T, Liu P, Ly S, Frolkis A, Pon A, Banco K, Mak C, Neveu V, Djoumbou Y, Eisner R, Guo AC, Wishart DS. Nucleic Acids Res. 2011 Jan; 39 (Database issue):D1035-41. | PMID:21059682