Rofecoxib is used for the treatment of osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, acute pain in adults, and primary dysmenorrhea, as well as acute treatment of migraine attacks with or without auras. Rofecoxib is a solid. This compound belongs to the stilbenes. These are organic compounds containing a 1,2-diphenylethylene moiety. Stilbenes (C6-C2-C6 ) are derived from the common phenylpropene (C6-C3) skeleton building block. The introduction of one or more hydroxyl groups to a phenyl ring lead to stilbenoids. Rofecoxib has a half-life of 17 hours and its mean oral bioavailability at therapeutically recommended doses of 125, 25, and 50 mg is approximately 93%. The proteins that rofecoxib target include elastin and prostaglandin G/H synthase 2. Cytochrome P450 1A2, Cytochrome P450 3A4, Cytochrome P450 2C9, Cytochrome P450 2C8, and Prostaglandin G/H synthase 1 are known to metabolize rofecoxib. On September 30, 2004, Merck voluntarily withdrew rofecoxib from the market because of concerns about increased risk of heart attack and stroke associated with long-term, high-dosage use.
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