Chemical Component Summary

Synonyms(3R,5S,6E)-7-[2-cyclopropyl-4-(4-fluorophenyl)quinolin-3-yl]-3,5-dihydroxyhept-6-enoic acid
Identifiers(~{E},3~{R},5~{S})-7-[2-cyclopropyl-4-(4-fluorophenyl)quinolin-3-yl]-3,5-bis(oxidanyl)hept-6-enoic acid
FormulaC25 H24 F N O4
Molecular Weight421.46
Isomeric SMILESc1ccc2c(c1)c(c(c(n2)C3CC3)/C=C/[C@H](C[C@H](CC(=O)O)O)O)c4ccc(cc4)F

Chemical Details

Formal Charge0
Atom Count55
Chiral Atom Count2
Bond Count58
Aromatic Bond Count17

Drug Info: DrugBank

DrugBank IDDB08860 
DescriptionPitavastatin, also known as the brand name product Livalo, is a lipid-lowering drug belonging to the statin class of medications. By inhibiting the endogenous production of cholesterol within the liver, statins lower abnormal cholesterol and lipid levels and ultimately reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. More specifically, statin medications competitively inhibit the enzyme hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) Reductase,[A181421] which catalyzes the conversion of HMG-CoA to mevalonic acid. This is the third step in a sequence of metabolic reactions involved in the production of several compounds involved in lipid metabolism and transport including cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) (sometimes referred to as "bad cholesterol"), and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL). Prescribing of statin medications is considered standard practice following any cardiovascular events and for people with a moderate to high risk of development of CVD, such as those with Type 2 Diabetes. The clear evidence of the benefit of statin use coupled with very minimal side effects or long term effects has resulted in this class becoming one of the most widely prescribed medications in North America.[A181087, A181406] Pitavastatin and other drugs from the statin class of medications including [atorvastatin], [pravastatin], [rosuvastatin], [fluvastatin], and [lovastatin] are considered first-line options for the treatment of dyslipidemia.[A181087, A181406] Increasing use of the statin class of drugs is largely due to the fact that cardiovascular disease (CVD), which includes heart attack, atherosclerosis, angina, peripheral artery disease, and stroke, has become a leading cause of death in high-income countries and a major cause of morbidity around the world.[A181084] Elevated cholesterol levels, and in particular, elevated low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels, are an important risk factor for the development of CVD.[A181087,A181553] Use of statins to target and reduce LDL levels has been shown in a number of landmark studies to significantly reduce the risk of development of CVD and all-cause mortality.[A181090,A181093,A181096,A181427,A181475,A181538] Statins are considered a cost-effective treatment option for CVD due to their evidence of reducing all-cause mortality including fatal and non-fatal CVD as well as the need for surgical revascularization or angioplasty following a heart attack.[A181087, A181406] Evidence has shown that even for low-risk individuals (with <10% risk of a major vascular event occurring within 5 years) statins cause a 20%-22% relative reduction in major cardiovascular events (heart attack, stroke, coronary revascularization, and coronary death) for every 1 mmol/L reduction in LDL without any significant side effects or risks.[A181397, A181403] While all statin medications are considered equally effective from a clinical standpoint, [rosuvastatin] is considered the most potent; doses of 10 to 40mg [rosuvastatin] per day were found in clinical studies to result in a 45.8% to 54.6% decrease in LDL cholesterol levels.[A181409,A181535,A181538,A1793] Study data has confirmed that pitavastatin's potency in lowering LDL-C is comparable to that of other statins but also has increased efficacy in increasing HDL-C (also known as "good cholesterol").[A182000,A182003,A182006] Despite these differences in potency, several trials have demonstrated only minimal differences in terms of clinical outcomes between statins.[A181538, A181427]
  • Pitavastatin magnesium
  • Pitavastatina
  • Pitavastatin
  • Pitavastatin calcium
  • Pitavastatine
Brand Names
  • Livalo
  • Pitavastatin
  • Zypitamag
IndicationPitavastatin is indicated for the treatment of adult patients with primary hyperlipidemia or mixed dyslipidemia to reduce elevated total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), apolipoprotein B (Apo B), triglycerides (TG), and to increase high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). It is also indicated for the treatment of pediatric patients aged 8 years and older with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HeFH) to reduce elevated TC, LDL-C, and Apo B.[F4667] Prescribing of statin medications is considered standard practice following any cardiovascular events and for people with a moderate to high risk of development of CVD. Statin-indicated conditions include diabetes mellitus, clinical atherosclerosis (including myocardial infarction, acute coronary syndromes, stable angina, documented coronary artery disease, stroke, trans ischemic attack (TIA), documented carotid disease, peripheral artery disease, and claudication), abdominal aortic aneurysm, chronic kidney disease, and severely elevated LDL-C levels.[A181087, A181406]
  • Agents Causing Muscle Toxicity
  • Anticholesteremic Agents
  • BCRP/ABCG2 Substrates
  • BSEP/ABCB11 Substrates
  • Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C8 Substrates
CAS number147511-69-1

Drug Targets

NameTarget SequencePharmacological ActionActions
3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductaseMLSRLFRMHGLFVASHPWEVIVGTVTLTICMMSMNMFTGNNKICGWNYEC...unknowninhibitor
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Drug Info/Drug Targets: DrugBank 3.0: a comprehensive resource for 'omics' research on drugs. Knox C, Law V, Jewison T, Liu P, Ly S, Frolkis A, Pon A, Banco K, Mak C, Neveu V, Djoumbou Y, Eisner R, Guo AC, Wishart DS. Nucleic Acids Res. 2011 Jan; 39 (Database issue):D1035-41. | PMID:21059682

Related Resource References

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