Vitamin K1, also called phylloquinone or phytonadione, is a fat soluble vitamin.[L33319,L33345] Phylloquinone is a cofactor of the enzyme γ-carboxylase, which modifies and activates precursors to coagulation factors II, VII, IX, and X.[A234264,A234195,A234259] It is indicated in the treatment of coagulation disorders due to faulty formation of coagulation factors II, VII, IX, and X caused by deficiency or interference in the activity of vitamin K.[L33319] Phylloquinone has been synthesized since at least 1939,[A234384] and was approved by the FDA prior to 1955.[L33389]
Oral phylloquinone is indicated to treat prothrombin deficiency caused by coumarin or indanedione derivatives; and hypoprothrombinemia secondary to antibacterial therapy, salicylates, or obstructive jaundice or biliary fistulas with concomitant bile salt administration.[L33345] Parenteral (intravenous, intramuscular, and subcutaneous) phylloquinone is indicated to treat coagulation disorders due to faulty formation of coagulation factors II, VII, IX, and X caused by vitamin K deficiency or some interference with vitamin K activity.[L33319] These indications include the above indications as well as hypoprothrombinemia secondary to sprue, ulcerative colitis, celiac disease, intestinal resection, pancreatic cystic fibrosis, or regional enteritis; or hypoprothrombinemia caused by interference with vitamin k metabolism.[L33319]
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