Antiprotozoal agent effective in trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, and some fungal infections; used in treatment of pneumocystis pneumonia in HIV-infected patients. It may cause diabetes mellitus, central nervous system damage, and other toxic effects. [PubChem]
For the treatment of pneumonia due to <i>Pneumocystis carinii</i>.
Pentamidine is an antiprotozoal agent. It is an aromatic diamidine, and is known to have activity against <i>Pneumocystis carinii</i>. The exact nature of its antiprotozoal action is unknown. <i>in vitro</i> studies with mammalian tissues and the protozoan <i>Crithidia oncopelti</i> indicate that the drug interferes with nuclear metabolism producing inhibition of the synthesis of DNA, RNA, phospholipids and proteins. Little is known about the drug's pharmacokinetics. The medication is also useful in Leishmaniasis and in prophylaxis against sleeping sickness caused by <i>Trypanosoma brucei gambiense</i>. Hydration before treatment lessens the incidence and severity of side effects, which include liver or kidney dysfunction, hypertension, hypotension, hypoglycemia, hypocalemia, leukopenia, thrombcytopenia, anemia, and allergic reaction. It is generally well-tolerated.
Mechanism of action
The mode of action of pentamidine is not fully understood. It is thought that the drug interferes with nuclear metabolism producing inhibition of the synthesis of DNA, RNA, phospholipids, and proteins.
Drug Info/Drug Targets: DrugBank 3.0: a comprehensive resource for 'omics' research on drugs. Knox C, Law V, Jewison
T, Liu P, Ly S, Frolkis A, Pon A, Banco K, Mak C, Neveu V, Djoumbou Y, Eisner R, Guo AC, Wishart DS.
Nucleic Acids Res. 2011 Jan; 39 (Database issue):D1035-41. | PMID:21059682