Prochlorperazine, also known as compazine, is a piperazine phenothiazine and first-generation antipsychotic drug that is used for the treatment of severe nausea and vomiting, as well as short-term management of psychotic disorders such as generalized non-psychotic anxiety and schizophrenia.[label] It mainly works by depressing the chemoreceptor trigger zone and blocking D2 dopamine receptors in the brain. It was shown to also block histaminergic, cholinergic and noradrenergic receptors.[L6637] Prochlorperazine was first developed in the 1950s [L6643] and was first approved by the FDA in 1956. Although newer antiemetic agents such as 5-HT3 antagonists are more heavily promoted, prochlorperazine is still widely used in nausea and vomiting.[L6640]
Indicated for the symptomatic treatment of severe nausea and vomiting.[label] Indicated for the management of manifestations of psychotic disorders, such as schizophrenia and generalized non-psychotic anxiety. The use of prochlorperazine for the management of generalized non-psychotic anxiety is typically not a first-line therapy and should be limited to doses of less than 20 mg per day or for shorter than 12 weeks.[label,L6634] Off-label uses include use in emergency settings for adult and pediatric migraines. The American Headache Society recommends the use of prochlorperazine as the first-line medication in this setting. In pediatric migraines, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent is often used in combination with dopamine antagonist.[L6637]
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