Chemical Component Summary

SynonymsN,N-Dimethylimidodicarbonimidic diamide
FormulaC4 H11 N5
Molecular Weight129.16
Isomeric SMILES[H]/N=C(/N)\N/C(=N\[H])/N(C)C

Chemical Details

Formal Charge0
Atom Count20
Chiral Atom Count0
Bond Count19
Aromatic Bond Count0

Drug Info: DrugBank

DrugBank IDDB00331 
DescriptionMetformin is an antihyperglycemic agent of the _biguanide_ class, used for the management of type II diabetes) [FDA label]. Currently, metformin is the first drug of choice for the management of type II diabetes and is prescribed to at least 120 million people worldwide [A176173]. Metformin is considered an antihyperglycemic drug because it lowers blood glucose concentrations in type II diabetes without causing hypoglycemia. Metformin is commonly described as an _insulin sensitizer_ leading to a decrease in insulin resistance and a clinically significant reduction of plasma fasting insulin levels [A176173]. Another well-known benefit of this drug is modest weight loss. Metformin is the drug of choice for obese type II diabetes patients [A36559]. Metformin was first approved in Canada in 1972 [A36552], followed by 1995 in the USA [FDA label]. This drug is available in regular and extended-release forms [FDA label].
  • Metformin
  • Metformina
  • Dimethylbiguanid
  • Metformin hydrochloride
  • Metforminum
Brand Names
  • Komboglyze
  • Gpc-metformin XR
  • Jamp-metformin Blackberry
  • Synjardy
  • Metaglip
Indication**Metformin tablet** Metformin is indicated as an adjunct to diet and exercise to increase glycemic control in _adults and pediatric patients_ 10 years of age and older diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus.[FDA label] **Metformin extended-release tablet (XR)** The extended-release form is indicated as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in only _adults_ with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Safety in children has not been determined to this date.[FDA label] An extended-release combination product containing empagliflozin, linagliptin, and metformin was approved by the FDA in January 2020 for the improvement of glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus when used adjunctively with diet and exercise.[L11479]
  • Alimentary Tract and Metabolism
  • Amidines
  • Biguanides
  • Blood Glucose Lowering Agents
  • Drugs that are Mainly Renally Excreted
  • A10BD23
  • A10BD02
  • A10BD18
  • A10BD11
  • A10BD25
CAS number657-24-9

Drug Targets

NameTarget SequencePharmacological ActionActions
5'-AMP-activated protein kinase subunit beta-1MGNTSSERAALERHGGHKTPRRDSSGGTKDGDRPKILMDSPEDADLFHSE...unknowninducer,activator
Electron transfer flavoprotein-ubiquinone oxidoreductase, mitochondrialMLVPLAKLSCLAYQCFHALKIKKNYLPLCATRWSSTSTVPRITTHYTIYP...unknowninhibitor
Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase [NAD(+)], cytoplasmicMASKKVCIVGSGNWGSAIAKIVGGNAAQLAQFDPRVTMWVFEEDIGGKKL...unknowninhibitor
Solute carrier family 22 member 1MPTVDDILEQVGESGWFQKQAFLILCLLSAAFAPICVGIVFLGFTPDHHC...unknownsubstrate
Solute carrier family 22 member 2MPTTVDDVLEHGGEFHFFQKQMFFLLALLSATFAPIYVGIVFLGFTPDHR...unknownsubstrate,inhibitor
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Drug Info/Drug Targets: DrugBank 3.0: a comprehensive resource for 'omics' research on drugs. Knox C, Law V, Jewison T, Liu P, Ly S, Frolkis A, Pon A, Banco K, Mak C, Neveu V, Djoumbou Y, Eisner R, Guo AC, Wishart DS. Nucleic Acids Res. 2011 Jan; 39 (Database issue):D1035-41. | PMID:21059682

Related Resource References

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