Chemical Component Summary

NameBrimonidine
Identifiers5-bromanyl-~{N}-(4,5-dihydro-1~{H}-imidazol-2-yl)quinoxalin-6-amine
FormulaC11 H10 Br N5
Molecular Weight292.13
TypeNON-POLYMER
Isomeric SMILESc1cc(c(c2c1nccn2)Br)NC3=NCCN3
InChIInChI=1S/C11H10BrN5/c12-9-7(17-11-15-5-6-16-11)1-2-8-10(9)14-4-3-13-8/h1-4H,5-6H2,(H2,15,16,17)
InChIKeyXYLJNLCSTIOKRM-UHFFFAOYSA-N

Chemical Details

Formal Charge0
Atom Count27
Chiral Atom Count0
Bond Count29
Aromatic Bond Count11

Drug Info: DrugBank

DrugBank IDDB00484 
NameBrimonidine
Groupsapproved
DescriptionBrimonidine is an alpha-adrenergic agonist and 2-imidazoline derivative that was first introduced in 1996.[A178951] It is considered to be a third generation alpha-2 aadrenergic receptor agonist, since it displays preferential binding at alpha-2 adrenoceptors over alpha-1 receptors.[A179002] Brimonidine displays a higher selectivity toward the alpha-2 adrenergic receptors than [clonidine] or [apraclonidine], which are also alpha-2 adrenergic agonists.[A178969] Alpha-2 adrenergic agonists are members of the ocular hypotensive agent drug class that are used in the chronic treatment of glaucoma. Early treatment and management of glaucoma, which predominantly involves the lowering of intraocular pressure, is critical since glaucoma is considered to be a common cause of blindness worldwide.[A178948,A178969] Ophthalmically, brimonidine is used to lower intraocular pressure by reducing aqueous humor production and increasing uveoscleral outflow. Because it is oxidately stable, brimonidine is associated with fewer reports of ocular allergic reactions compared to other alpha-2 adrenergic agonists.[A178969] The ophthalmic solution of brimonidine was first approved by the FDA in 1996 as Alphagan [label] and brimonidine is the only selective alpha-adrenergic receptor agonist approved for chronic treatment in glaucoma.[A36674] Brimonidine is also found in ophthalmic solutions in combination with [brinzolamide] under the market name Simbrinza for the reduction in intraocular pressure. Unlike nonselective beta-blockers used in ocular hypertension, brimonidine is not associated with significantly adverse cardiopulmonary side effects.[A178945] Thus brimonidine is an effective and safe alternative to beta-blockers, in patients with, or at high risk for, cardiopulmonary disease.[A178948] The topical form of brimonidine was approved by the FDA in August 2013 for the symptomatic treatment of persistent facial erythema of rosacea in adults. It is marketed under the brand name Mirvaso.[L6535] Brimonidine is the first topical treatment approved for facial erythema of rosacea.[A178978]
Synonyms
  • Bromoxidine
  • Brimonidine
  • Brimonidina
  • Brimonidinum
  • 5-Bromo-6-(2-imidazolin-2-ylamino)quinoxaline
Brand Names
  • Apo-brimonidine
  • Brimonidine
  • Brim-Dor PF
  • Ratio-brimonidine
  • Brimonidine P
Indication**Opthalmic** Indicated for lowering intraocular pressure (IOP) in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension [label] as monotherapy or combination product with [brinzolamide]. **Topical** Indicated for the treatment of persistent (non-transient) facial erythema of rosacea in adults 18 years of age or older.[L6535]
Categories
  • Adrenergic Agents
  • Adrenergic Agonists
  • Adrenergic alpha-2 Receptor Agonists
  • Adrenergic alpha-Agonists
  • Antiglaucoma Preparations and Miotics
ATC-Code
  • D11AX21
  • S01EA05
CAS number59803-98-4

Drug Targets

NameTarget SequencePharmacological ActionActions
Alpha-2A adrenergic receptorMGSLQPDAGNASWNGTEAPGGGARATPYSLQVTLTLVCLAGLLMLLTVFG...unknownagonist
Alpha-2B adrenergic receptorMDHQDPYSVQATAAIAAAITFLILFTIFGNALVILAVLTSRSLRAPQNLF...unknownagonist
Alpha-2C adrenergic receptorMASPALAAALAVAAAAGPNASGAGERGSGGVANASGASWGPPRGQYSAGA...unknownagonist
Aldehyde oxidaseMDRASELLFYVNGRKVIEKNVDPETMLLPYLRKKLRLTGTKYGCGGGGCG...unknownsubstrate
Drug Info/Drug Targets: DrugBank 3.0: a comprehensive resource for 'omics' research on drugs. Knox C, Law V, Jewison T, Liu P, Ly S, Frolkis A, Pon A, Banco K, Mak C, Neveu V, Djoumbou Y, Eisner R, Guo AC, Wishart DS. Nucleic Acids Res. 2011 Jan; 39 (Database issue):D1035-41. | PMID:21059682