A depressor amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of histidine. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.
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Humans and other mammals
Histamine phosphate is indicated as a diagnostic aid for evaluation of gastric acid secretory function.
Histamine stimulates gastric gland secretion, causing an increased secretion of gastric juice of high acidity. This action is probably due mainly to a direct action on parietal and chief gland cells.
Mechanism of action
Histamine acts directly on the blood vessels to dilate arteries and capillaries; this action is mediated by both H 1- and H 2-receptors. Capillary dilatation may produce flushing of the face, a decrease in systemic blood pressure, and gastric gland secretion, causing an increased secretion of gastric juice of high acidity. Increased capillary permeability accompanies capillary dilatation, producing an outward passage of plasma protein and fluid into the extracellular spaces, an increase in lymph flow and protein content, and the formation of edema. In addition, histamine has a direct stimulant action on smooth muscle, producing contraction if H 1-receptors are activated, or mostly relaxation if H 2-receptors are activated. Also in humans, the stimulant effect of histamine may cause contraction of the intestinal muscle. However, little effect is noticed on the uterus, bladder, or gallbladder. Histamine has some stimulant effect on duodenal, salivary, pancreatic, bronchial, and lacrimal glands. Histamine also can bind to H3 and H4 receptors which are involved in the CNS/PNS neurotransmitter release and immune system chemotaxis, respectively.
Drug Info/Drug Targets: DrugBank 3.0: a comprehensive resource for 'omics' research on drugs. Knox C, Law V, Jewison
T, Liu P, Ly S, Frolkis A, Pon A, Banco K, Mak C, Neveu V, Djoumbou Y, Eisner R, Guo AC, Wishart DS.
Nucleic Acids Res. 2011 Jan; 39 (Database issue):D1035-41. | PMID:21059682