Chemical Component Summary

FormulaC9 H11 F2 N3 O4
Molecular Weight263.198
Isomeric SMILESC1=CN(C(=O)N=C1N)[C@H]2C([C@@H]([C@H](O2)CO)O)(F)F

Chemical Details

Formal Charge0
Atom Count29
Chiral Atom Count3
Bond Count30
Aromatic Bond Count6

Drug Info: DrugBank

DrugBank IDDB00441 
Groups approved
DescriptionGemcitabine is a nucleoside analog and a chemotherapeutic agent. It was originally investigated for its antiviral effects, but it is now used as an anticancer therapy for various cancers.[A233135] Gemcitabine is a cytidine analog with two fluorine atoms replacing the hydroxyl on the ribose.[A233145] As a prodrug, gemcitabine is transformed into its active metabolites that work by replacing the building blocks of nucleic acids during DNA elongation, arresting tumour growth and promoting apoptosis of malignant cells.[L32960] The structure, metabolism, and mechanism of action of gemcitabine are similar to [cytarabine], but gemcitabine has a wider spectrum of antitumour activity.[A233140] Gemcitabine is marketed as Gemzar and it is available as intravenous injection. It is approved by the FDA to treat advanced ovarian cancer in combination with [carboplatin], metastatic breast cancer in combination with [paclitaxel], non-small cell lung cancer in combination with [cisplatin], and pancreatic cancer as monotherapy.[L32950] It is also being investigated in other cancer and tumour types.
  • Gemcitabine hydrochloride
  • Gemcitabine
  • Gemcitabinum
  • 2',2'-Difluorodeoxycytidine
  • 4-amino-1-((2R,4R,5R)-3,3-difluoro-4-hydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)-tetrahydrofuran-2-yl)pyrimidin-2(1H)-one
Brand Names
  • Gemcitabine HCl
  • Gemcitabine for Injection Concentrate
  • Aj-gemcitabine
  • Gemcitabine hydrochloride
  • Gemcitabine Hydrochloride for Injection
IndicationGemcitabine is a chemotherapeutic agent used as monotherapy or in combination with other anticancer agents. In combination with [carboplatin], it is indicated for the treatment of advanced ovarian cancer that has relapsed at least 6 months after completion of platinum-based therapy.[L32950] Gemcitabine in combination with [paclitaxel] is indicated for the first-line treatment of patients with metastatic breast cancer after failure of prior anthracycline-containing adjuvant chemotherapy, unless anthracyclines were clinically contraindicated.[L32950] In combination with [cisplatin], gemcitabine is indicated for the first-line treatment of patients with inoperable, locally advanced (Stage IIIA or IIIB) or metastatic (Stage IV) non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).[L32950] Dual therapy with cisplatin is also used to treat patients with Stage IV (locally advanced or metastatic) transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder.[L32955] Gemcitabine is indicated as first-line treatment for patients with locally advanced (nonresectable Stage II or Stage III) or metastatic (Stage IV) adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. Gemcitabine is indicated for patients previously treated with [fluorouracil].[L32950]
  • Antimetabolites
  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Antineoplastic and Immunomodulating Agents
  • Carbohydrates
  • Cytidine Deaminase Substrates
CAS number95058-81-4

Drug Targets

NameTarget SequencePharmacological ActionActions
Ribonucleoside-diphosphate reductase large subunitMHVIKRDGRQERVMFDKITSRIQKLCYGLNMDFVDPAQITMKVIQGLYSG...unknowninhibitor
Thymidine kinase 2, mitochondrialMLLWPLRGWAARALRCFGPGSRGSPASGPGPRRVQRRAWPPDKEQEKEKK...unknownsubstrate
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Drug Info/Drug Targets: DrugBank 3.0: a comprehensive resource for 'omics' research on drugs. Knox C, Law V, Jewison T, Liu P, Ly S, Frolkis A, Pon A, Banco K, Mak C, Neveu V, Djoumbou Y, Eisner R, Guo AC, Wishart DS. Nucleic Acids Res. 2011 Jan; 39 (Database issue):D1035-41. | PMID:21059682

Related Resource References

Resource NameReference
Pharos CHEMBL888
PubChem 60750
ChEBI CHEBI:175901