DAH in polymers: 19 entries. Examples include: 2VH3 2ZWF 2ZWE

DAH as a free ligand exists in 4 entries. Examples include: 4P6S 3TEH 3TEG

Find related ligands: Stereoisomers Similar ligands Chemical Structure Search

View summary at Ligand Expo

Chemical Component Summary

Identifiers(2S)-2-azanyl-3-[3,4-bis(oxidanyl)phenyl]propanoic acid
FormulaC9 H11 N O4
Molecular Weight197.19
Isomeric SMILESN[C@@H](Cc1ccc(O)c(O)c1)C(O)=O

Chemical Details

Formal Charge0
Atom Count25
Chiral Atom Count1
Chiral AtomsCA
Bond Count25
Aromatic Bond Count6
Leaving AtomsOXT, H2, HXT

Drug Info: DrugBank

DrugBank IDDB01235 Different stereochemistry
DescriptionThe naturally occurring form of dihydroxyphenylalanine and the immediate precursor of dopamine. Unlike dopamine itself, it can be taken orally and crosses the blood-brain barrier. It is rapidly taken up by dopaminergic neurons and converted to dopamine. It is used for the treatment of parkinsonian disorders and is usually given with agents that inhibit its conversion to dopamine outside of the central nervous system. [PubChem]
  • (-)-3-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)-L-alanine
  • (-)-Dopa
  • (−)-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-L-alanine
  • (−)-dopa
  • 3-Hydroxy-L-tyrosine
Brand Names
  • Apo-levocarb - Tab 10mg/100mg
  • Apo-levocarb - Tab 25mg/250mg
  • Apo-levocarb CR
  • Apo-levocarb-tab 25mg/10
Affected OrganismHumans and other mammals
IndicationFor the treatment of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (Paralysis Agitans), postencephalitic parkinsonism, symptomatic parkinsonism which may follow injury to the nervous system by carbon monoxide intoxication, and manganese intoxication.
PharmacologyLevodopa (L-dopa) is used to replace dopamine lost in Parkinson's disease because dopamine itself cannot cross the blood-brain barrier where its precursor can. However, L-DOPA is converted to dopamine in the periphery as well as in the CNS, so it is administered with a peripheral DDC (dopamine decarboxylase) inhibitor such as carbidopa, without which 90% is metabolised in the gut wall, and with a COMT inhibitor if possible; this prevents about a 5% loss. The form given therapeutically is therefore a prodrug which avoids decarboxylation in the stomach and periphery, can cross the blood-brain barrier, and once in the brain is converted to the neurotransmitter dopamine by the enzyme aromatic-L-amino-acid decarboxylase.
Mechanism of actionStriatal dopamine levels in symptomatic Parkinson's disease are decreased by 60 to 80%, striatal dopaminergic neurotransmission may be enhanced by exogenous supplementation of dopamine through administration of dopamine's precursor, levodopa. A small percentage of each levodopa dose crosses the blood-brain barrier and is decarboxylated to dopamine. This newly formed dopamine then is available to stimulate dopaminergic receptors, thus compensating for the depleted supply of endogenous dopamine.
Route of administration
  • Enteral
  • Oral
  • Amines
  • Amino Acids
  • Amino Acids, Aromatic
  • Amino Acids, Cyclic
  • Amino Acids, Essential
  • N04BA03
  • N04BA02
  • N04BA01
CAS number59-92-7
Drug Info/Drug Targets: DrugBank 3.0: a comprehensive resource for 'omics' research on drugs. Knox C, Law V, Jewison T, Liu P, Ly S, Frolkis A, Pon A, Banco K, Mak C, Neveu V, Djoumbou Y, Eisner R, Guo AC, Wishart DS. Nucleic Acids Res. 2011 Jan; 39 (Database issue):D1035-41. | PMID:21059682