Chemical Component Summary

Identifiersmethyl (1R,2R,3S,5S,8S)-8-methyl-3-(phenylcarbonyloxy)-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octane-2-carboxylate
FormulaC17 H21 N O4
Molecular Weight303.35
Isomeric SMILESCOC(=O)[C@@H]1[C@H]2CC[C@@H](C[C@@H]1OC(=O)c1ccccc1)N2C

Chemical Details

Formal Charge0
Atom Count43
Chiral Atom Count4
Chiral AtomsC10, C24, C29, C8
Bond Count45
Aromatic Bond Count6
Leaving Atomsn/a

Drug Info: DrugBank

DrugBank IDDB00907 Different stereochemistry
  • approved
  • illicit
DescriptionAn alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake. [PubChem]
  • (-)-Cocaine
  • (−)-cocaine
  • [1R-(Exo,exo)]-3-(benzoyloxy)-8-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octane-2-carboxylic acid, methyl ester
  • 2-Methyl-3beta-hydroxy-1alphah,5alphah-tropane-2beta-carboxylate benzoate (ester)
  • Benzoylmethylecgonine
SaltsCocaine hydrochloride
Brand Names
  • Cocaine Hydrochloride
  • Cocaine Hydrochloride Top Sol 40mg/ml
  • Cocaine Hydrochloride Topical Sol 10%
  • PM
Affected OrganismHumans and other mammals
IndicationFor the introduction of local (topical) anesthesia of accessible mucous membranes of the oral, laryngeal and nasal cavities.
PharmacologyCocaine is a local anesthetic indicated for the introduction of local (topical) anesthesia of accessible mucous membranes of the oral, laryngeal and nasal cavities.
Mechanism of actionCocaine produces anesthesia by inhibiting excitation of nerve endings or by blocking conduction in peripheral nerves. This is achieved by reversibly binding to and inactivating sodium channels. Sodium influx through these channels is necessary for the depolarization of nerve cell membranes and subsequent propagation of impulses along the course of the nerve. Cocaine is the only local anesthetic with vasoconstrictive properties. This is a result of its blockade of norepinephrine reuptake in the autonomic nervous system. Cocaine binds differentially to the dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine transport proteins and directly prevents the re-uptake of dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine into pre-synaptic neurons. Its effect on dopamine levels is most responsible for the addictive property of cocaine.
Route of administrationTopical
  • Alkaloids
  • Analgesics and Anesthetics
  • Anesthetics
  • Anesthetics, Local
  • Aza Compounds
  • S01HA01
  • N01BC01
  • R02AD03
  • S02DA02
CAS number50-36-2
Drug Info/Drug Targets: DrugBank 3.0: a comprehensive resource for 'omics' research on drugs. Knox C, Law V, Jewison T, Liu P, Ly S, Frolkis A, Pon A, Banco K, Mak C, Neveu V, Djoumbou Y, Eisner R, Guo AC, Wishart DS. Nucleic Acids Res. 2011 Jan; 39 (Database issue):D1035-41. | PMID:21059682