5AE

4-amino-1-(beta-D-ribofuranosyl)-1,3,5-triazin-2(1H)-one

5AE as a free ligand exists in 1 entry. Examples include: 4QD3

Find related ligands: Stereoisomers Similar ligands Chemical Structure Search

View summary at Ligand Expo



Chemical Component Summary

Name4-amino-1-(beta-D-ribofuranosyl)-1,3,5-triazin-2(1H)-one
Identifiers4-azanyl-1-[(2R,3R,4S,5R)-5-(hydroxymethyl)-3,4-bis(oxidanyl)oxolan-2-yl]-1,3,5-triazin-2-one
FormulaC8 H12 N4 O5
Molecular Weight244.21
TypeNON-POLYMER
Isomeric SMILESNc1ncn([C@@H]2O[C@H](CO)[C@@H](O)[C@H]2O)c(=O)n1
InChIInChI=1S/C8H12N4O5/c9-7-10-2-12(8(16)11-7)6-5(15)4(14)3(1-13)17-6/h2-6,13-15H,1H2,(H2,9,11,16)/t3-,4-,5-,6-/m1/s1
InChIKeyNMUSYJAQQFHJEW-KVTDHHQDSA-N

Chemical Details

Formal Charge0
Atom Count29
Chiral Atom Count4
Chiral AtomsC1', C2', C3', C4'
Bond Count30
Aromatic Bond Count0
Leaving Atomsn/a

Drug Info: DrugBank

DrugBank IDDB00928 Different stereochemistry
NameAzacitidine
Groups
  • approved
  • investigational
DescriptionA pyrimidine nucleoside analogue that inhibits DNA methyltransferase, impairing DNA methylation. It is also an antimetabolite of cytidine, incorporated primarily into RNA. Azacytidine has been used as an antineoplastic agent. [PubChem]
Synonyms
  • 4-Amino-1-beta-D-ribofuranosyl-S-triazin-2(1H)-one
  • 5 AZC
  • 5-Azacytidine
  • Azacitidina
  • Azacitidine
Brand Names
  • Azacitidine
  • Vidaza
  • Ladakamycin
  • Mylosar
Affected OrganismHumans and other mammals
IndicationFor treatment of patients with the following French-American-British myelodysplastic syndrome subtypes: refractory anemia or refractory anemia with ringed sideroblasts (if accompanied by neutropenia or thrombocytopenia or requiring transfusions), refractory anemia with excess blasts, refractory anemia with excess blasts in transformation (now classified as acute myelogenous leukemia with multilineage dysplasia), and chronic myelomonocytic leukemia.
PharmacologyAzacitidine is believed to exert its antineoplastic effects by causing hypomethylation of DNA and direct cytotoxicity on abnormal hematopoietic cells in the bone marrow. The concentration of azacitidine required for maximum inhibition of DNA methylation in vitro does not cause major suppression of DNA synthesis. Hypomethylation may restore normal function to genes that are critical for differentiation and proliferation. The cytotoxic effects of azacitidine cause the death of rapidly dividing cells, including cancer cells that are no longer responsive to normal growth control mechanisms. Non-proliferating cells are relatively insensitive to azacitidine. Upon uptake into cells, azacitidine is phosphorylated to 5-azacytidine monophosphate by uridine-cytidine kinase, then to diphosphate by pyrimidine monophosphate kinases and triphosphate by diphosphate kinases. 5-Azacitidine triphosphate is incorporated into RNA, leading to the disruption of nuclear and cytoplasmic RNA metabolism and inhibition of protein synthesis. 5-Azacytidine diphosphate is reduced to 5-aza-deoxycytidine diphosphate by ribonucleotide reductase. The resultant metabolite is phosphorylated to 5-azadeoxycitidine triphosphate by nucleoside diphosphate kinases. 5-azadeoxycitidine triphosphate is then incoporated into DNA, leading to inhibition of DNA synthesis. Azacitidine is most toxic during the S-phase of the cell cycle.
Mechanism of actionAzacitidine (5-azacytidine) is a chemical analogue of the cytosine nucleoside used in DNA and RNA. Azacitidine is thought to induce antineoplastic activity via two mechanisms; inhibition of DNA methyltransferase at low doses, causing hypomethylation of DNA, and direct cytotoxicity in abnormal hematopoietic cells in the bone marrow through its incorporation into DNA and RNA at high doses, resulting in cell death. As azacitidine is a ribonucleoside, it incoporates into RNA to a larger extent than into DNA. The incorporation into RNA leads to the dissembly of polyribosomes, defective methylation and acceptor function of transfer RNA, and inhibition of the production of protein. Its incorporation into DNA leads to a covalent binding with DNA methyltransferases, which prevents DNA synthesis and subsequent cytotoxicity.
Route of administration
  • Intravenous; Subcutaneous
  • Subcutaneous
Categories
  • Antimetabolites
  • Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic
  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Antineoplastic and Immunomodulating Agents
  • Aza Compounds
ATC-CodeL01BC07
CAS number320-67-2

Drug Targets

NameSequence SearchPharmacological ActionActions
DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase 1MPARTAPARVPTLAVPAISLPDDVRRRLKDLERDSLTEKECVKEKLNLLH...yesinhibitor
yesother
yesother
Drug Info/Drug Targets: DrugBank 3.0: a comprehensive resource for 'omics' research on drugs. Knox C, Law V, Jewison T, Liu P, Ly S, Frolkis A, Pon A, Banco K, Mak C, Neveu V, Djoumbou Y, Eisner R, Guo AC, Wishart DS. Nucleic Acids Res. 2011 Jan; 39 (Database issue):D1035-41. | PMID:21059682