2FMZ

Carbonic anhydrase activators. Activation of isoforms I, II, IV, VA, VII and XIV with L- and D- phenylalanine, structure with D-Phenylalanine.


Experimental Data Snapshot

  • Method: X-RAY DIFFRACTION
  • Resolution: 1.6 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.237 
  • R-Value Work: 0.218 

wwPDB Validation 3D Report Full Report


This is version 1.3 of the entry. See complete history

Literature

Carbonic Anhydrase Activators. Activation of Isoforms I, II, IV, VA, VII, and XIV with l- and d-Phenylalanine and Crystallographic Analysis of Their Adducts with Isozyme II: Stereospecific Recognition within the Active Site of an Enzyme and Its Consequences for the Drug Design.

Temperini, C.Scozzafava, A.Vullo, D.Supuran, C.T.

(2006) J.Med.Chem. 49: 3019-3027

  • DOI: 10.1021/jm0603320
  • Primary Citation of Related Structures:  

  • PubMed Abstract: 
  • Activation of six human brain carbonic anhydrases (hCAs, EC 4.2.1.1), hCA I, II, IV, VA, VII, and XIV, with l-/d-phenylalanine was investigated kinetically and by X-ray crystallography. l-Phe was a potent activator of isozymes I, II, and XIV (K(A)s o ...

    Activation of six human brain carbonic anhydrases (hCAs, EC 4.2.1.1), hCA I, II, IV, VA, VII, and XIV, with l-/d-phenylalanine was investigated kinetically and by X-ray crystallography. l-Phe was a potent activator of isozymes I, II, and XIV (K(A)s of 13-240 nM), a weaker activator of hCA VA and VII (K(A)s of 9.8-10.9 microM), and a quite inefficient hCA IV activator (K(A) of 52 microM). d-Phe showed good hCA II activatory properties (K(A) of 35 nM), being a moderate hCA VA, VII, and XIV (K(A)s of 4.6-9.7 microM) and a weak hCA I and IV activator (K(A)s of 63-86 microM). X-ray crystallography of the hCA II-l-Phe/d-Phe adducts showed the activators to be anchored at the entrance of the active site, participating in numerous bonds and hydrophobic interactions with amino acid residues His64, Thr200, Trp5, and Pro201. This is the first study showing different binding modes of stereoisomeric activators within the hCA II active site, with consequences for overall proton transfer processes (rate-determining for the catalytic cycle). It also points out differences of activation efficiency between various isozymes with structurally related activators, exploitable for designing alternative proton transfer pathways. CA activators may lead to the design of pharmacologically useful derivatives for the enhancement of synaptic efficacy, which may represent a conceptually new approach for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, aging, and other conditions in which spatial learning and memory therapy must be enhanced. As the blood and brain concentrations of l-Phe are quite variable (30-73 microM), activity of some brain CAs may strongly be influenced by the level of activator(s) present in such tissues.


    Organizational Affiliation

    Università degli Studi di Firenze, Laboratorio di Chimica Bioinorganica, Rm. 188, Via della Lastruccia 3, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Firenze), Italy.




Macromolecules

Find similar proteins by: Sequence  |  Structure

Entity ID: 1
MoleculeChainsSequence LengthOrganismDetails
Carbonic anhydrase 2
A
260Homo sapiensMutation(s): 0 
Gene Names: CA2
EC: 4.2.1.1
Find proteins for P00918 (Homo sapiens)
Go to Gene View: CA2
Go to UniProtKB:  P00918
Small Molecules
Ligands 3 Unique
IDChainsName / Formula / InChI Key2D Diagram3D Interactions
ZN
Query on ZN

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Download CCD File 
A
ZINC ION
Zn
PTFCDOFLOPIGGS-UHFFFAOYSA-N
 Ligand Interaction
DPN
Query on DPN

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Download CCD File 
A
D-PHENYLALANINE
C9 H11 N O2
COLNVLDHVKWLRT-MRVPVSSYSA-N
 Ligand Interaction
HG
Query on HG

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Download CCD File 
A
MERCURY (II) ION
Hg
BQPIGGFYSBELGY-UHFFFAOYSA-N
 Ligand Interaction
External Ligand Annotations 
IDBinding Affinity (Sequence Identity %)
DPNKi: 35 nM BINDINGMOAD
Experimental Data & Validation

Experimental Data

  • Method: X-RAY DIFFRACTION
  • Resolution: 1.6 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.237 
  • R-Value Work: 0.218 
  • Space Group: P 1 21 1
Unit Cell:
Length (Å)Angle (°)
a = 42.090α = 90.00
b = 41.380β = 104.40
c = 72.100γ = 90.00
Software Package:
Software NamePurpose
MOSFLMdata reduction
SCALEPACKdata scaling
CNSphasing
CNSrefinement

Structure Validation

View Full Validation Report or Ramachandran Plots



Entry History 

Deposition Data

Revision History 

  • Version 1.0: 2006-05-23
    Type: Initial release
  • Version 1.1: 2008-04-14
    Type: Version format compliance
  • Version 1.2: 2011-07-13
    Type: Version format compliance
  • Version 1.3: 2018-04-04
    Type: Advisory, Data collection